Transformers: Basics, Maintenance, and Diagnostics PDF

Transformers  Basics, Maintenance, and Diagnostics

Transformers: Basics, Maintenance, and Diagnostics

Transformers have been used at powerplants since the inception of alternating-current generation, a century ago. While operating principles of transformers remain the same, the challenges of maintaining and testing transformers have evolved along with transformer design and construction. Modern transformers are designed to closer tolerances than transformers in the past. Thus, effective, regular maintenance and testing is even more essential to continued operation when traditional “overdesign” cannot be relied on to overcome abnormal conditions. The utility engineer must be familiar with all aspects of maintenance and testing and make use of state-of-the-art tools and techniques for evaluating transformer condition. While on-line diagnostic systems and computerized testing methods are very helpful, they are not a substitute for sound engineering judgment and expertise.

This volume provides timely, practical advice to those seeking to better understand how transformers work, how they are best maintained, and how to test and evaluate their condition. It has been developed with the assistance of Bureau of Reclamation engineers responsible for operating and maintaining transformers at important powerplants in the Western States. Support and funding was provided through the Reclamation Power Resources Office in Denver and via the Manuals and Standards development program.


  1. Introduction
  2. Introduction to Transformers
  3. Routine Maintenance
  4. Oil-Filled Transformer Inspections
  5. Gaskets
  6. Transformer Oils
  7. Transformer Oil Tests that Should Be Completed Annually with the Dissolved Gas Analysis
  8. Silicone Oil-Filled Transformers
  9. Transformer Testing (continued)

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