Tall Building Design: Steel, Concrete, and Composite Systems 1st Edition by Bungale S. Taranath pdf.
Tall Building Design: Steel, Concrete, and Composite Systems 1st Edition by Bungale S. Taranath free pdf downlaod.
Preface of Tall Building Design: Steel, Concrete, and Composite Systems book:
by Bungale S. Taranath
Tall buildings have a unique appeal, even an air of romance and mystery associated with their design. The adoration that super- and ultratall buildings command lies in their apparent freedom from gravity loads—they do not just stand tall, they seem to do so effortlessly resisting gravity as well as laterally directed force generated by wind gusts and seismic ground motions.
Tall buildings have fascinated humans from the beginning of civilization—the primary motivation was to create monuments rather than human habitats. Today’s structures, on the other hand, are human habitats—not allowed by economics and design to be nearly as simple, heavy, stiff, and robust as their relatively recent counterparts such as the Empire State Building of the 1930s.
Although tall buildings are unique from certain aspects such as consideration of lateral deflection, their design, in a manner of speaking, is similar to the design of their lower brethren. Thus the material presented in this book applies equally to not-so-tall buildings as well.
This book is an outgrowth of my previous publications. It attempts to maintain the same basic approach:
first to establish a firm understanding of the behavior of structural members and systems and then to develop proficiency in the methods used in current design practice with particular reference to the provisions of the following publications:
• Minimum Design Loadsfor Buildings and Other Structures, ASCE/SEI 7-10 Specifications
• Specifications for Structural Steel Buildings, ANSI/ASCE 360-10
• Seismic Provisions of Structural Steel Buildings, ANS1/AISC 341-10
• Pre-qualified Connections for Special and Intermediate Steel Moment Connections for Seismic Applications, ANSI/AISC 358-10
• Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete, ACI 318-11
• Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings, ASCE/SEI 41-06
Much of the present-day design is carried out using commercially available computer software or spreadsheets written by individuals for their particular needs. It is generally recognized that mere proficiency in navigating through computer software is inadequate, and often dangerous, for successful professional practice. Moreover, code provisions and procedures are subject to change periodically, oftentimes too frequent for the comfort of design professionals. To understand and keep abreast of these rapid developments is no small task. To do so successfully, the engineer needs a thorough grounding in the behavior of structural components and systems. Familiarity in the present-day methodology is essential to design structures that comply with legally adapted standards and to do so safely, economically, and efficiently.
The fundamental laws governing the static and dynamic analysis of structures subjected to the forces of nature are over 150 years old. Therefore, anyone who claims that they have invented a new fundamental principle is a victim of their own knowledge gap. The real challenge in writing a text in the structural engineering field, then, is to describe in physical and practical terms the underlying theory and how it relates to the modern world, where structural analysis and even the interpretation of analysis results are typically done by the computer.
Thus, the foremost objectives of this book are as follows:
• To promote a better understanding of the structural behavior of steel, concrete, and composite members and systems.
• To develop a cohesive wind- and earthquake-resistant design procedure for tall building structures and their lower brethren.
• To bridge the gap between two design approaches, one based on skill and experience and the other that relies upon computer skills, to imagine the design possibilities when that wonderful ability—the intuition we humans have—marries unfathomable precision and
• To cultivate imaginative approaches by presenting examples, and where appropriate relate these specific examples to building codes and standards that are essential and mandatory tools of the trade.
• To address the question frequently proposed to the designer by architects: “Can we do this?” In tackling this seemingly simple question, we need to acknowledge that in the fast paced world we live in, the time frame for answering such questions is measured in days and even in hours. What is needed at this juncture is the proverbial back-of-the-envelope analysis that confirms the applicability and efficiency of a concept, which would then also serve as a check of computer solutions.
• To promote the idea that design is a creative process as opposed to a mere execution of framing proposals.
• To reiterate the adage that computers assist us in the analysis phase, but it is the designer who harmonizes system components so as to optimize both cost and behavior.
Utilizing the aforementioned goals as a guide, I have set for myself a challenge to prepare a comprehensive text that will explore the world of steel, concrete, and composite materials as applied to the construction of buildings, particularly those that are super- and ultratall.
Using conceptual thinking and basic strength of material concepts as foundations, I have ventured to show how to use imperfect information to estimate the answer to much larger and complex design problems. To do so requires a certain intuitive feel for numbers as well as an appreciation of the fact that the “right answer” in this context is only of an order of magnitude of a more precise computer solution, but good enough to put us on the right track. The whole idea is to break seemingly intractable problems down to more manageable pieces that can be quickly approximated.
Thus, I attempt to base the entire text on that wonderful ability of intuition we humans have developed in visualizing and realizing economical structural systems.
Developments in the last decade have produced many slender high-rise buildings, demanding that particular attention be paid to their complex behavior under lateral loads. Economic considerations routinely call for leaner and sparser designs that increasingly challenge the design professional to come up with safe and economical structural solutions. In today’s engineering practice, it is obligatory to prepare several schematic options before a final scheme is selected. Even experienced engineers find it difficult to readily come up with diversified structural schemes because, other than their own library of experience, very little reference material is available. This book attempts to alleviate this problem by providing a systematic basis for arriving at preliminary structural schemes.
The trend in building design today is for the architect to define the building shape while the structural engineer, as a facilitator, comes up with a structural system that fulfils the architect’s dream within the owner’s budget requirements. This trend has resulted in innovative and daring structural schemes. Fortunately for the layperson, the result has been an interesting, varied, and flamboyant architecture that adds to the variety and interest of the skyline in urban cities. Therefore, there is a need today for the structural engineer to be familiar with the run-of-themill design as well as with the less usual structural solutions. To this end, emphasis is placed in this book on the state-of-the-art solutions that have evolved as a natural extension of the proven systems.
Structural steel, as we know today, has been with us for well over a hundred years. It was in the year 1894 that the first specification for structural steel was published, and an examination of test results of that era suggests that the properties of this early steel were not very different from the A36 steel of the 1950s and 1960s. The first design specifications for steel buildings published by the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) in the 1920s firmly established steel as a building material, and ever since its growth has been phenomenal in the construction of buildings and bridges. Reinforced concrete has been known to humans for over two hundred years. However, its recognition as a viable product for seismic areas and loads is relatively recent. In fact, it was at an American Concrete Institute (ACI) convention held in San Francisco in 1980 that reinforced concrete was presented as a modern, earthquake-resistant material capable of being at once strong and ductile. Since then, we have witnessed a phenomenal increase in its load-resisting and ductile properties.
At first glance, composite construction may appear to be a new, emerging technology, but in reality it has been with us also for over a hundred years. However, only recently has its use been officially formalized by the AISC. We can now design, with equal assurance, composite buildings in areas of high seismic risk.
In today’s world of high expectations, we seem to place less emphasis on learning the fundamentals of conceptual thinking. If we were to retain these skills as a profession, we engineers would be more adept at identifying what is critical for capturing essential behavior of the structural system instead of addressing every component of design independently. Computer analysis, then, works to solidify and extend the creative idea or concept that might have started out as a sketch on the proverbial back of the envelope. Our unique gift as engineers is our critical thinking, and we risk shortchanging ourselves and our field, in general, if we remain convinced that the output of voluminous calculations of every structural member is proof of good design.
When designing buildings in accordance with the ASCE 7-10 Minimum Loads Standards, considerations of wind- and seismic-resistant design is required for most building structures in the United States. The use of these documents can be daunting, particularly for those engineers that have little formal training in seismology, seismic hazard analysis, structural dynamics, and inelastic behavior. Given this perspective, this book has been designed to provide guidance on how to use code-based procedures while at the same time providing sufficient technical background to explain why the provisions are written the way they are. Where possible, the technical background is presented simultaneously with the explanation of the building code provisions. In many cases, such explanations are presented as part of a series of detailed numerical examples that are presented throughout the book. Information is provided on the wind and seismic detailing requirements of structural steel, reinforced concrete, and composite structures in the context of building system selection and behavior.
by Bungale S. Taranath
Download Tall Building Design: Steel, Concrete, and Composite Systems 1st Edition by Bungale S. Taranath in free pdf format.