Steam Turbines for Modern Fossil-Fuel Power Plants 1st Edition by Alexander S. Leyzerovich.
Table of Contents:
Part I Main Steam Parameters, Operating Performances,
and Design Features of Modern Steam Turbines
for Fossil-Fuel Power Plants Worldwide
Chapter 1 Steam Turbines in the Modern World
Chapter 2 Rise of Steam Turbine Output and Efficiency
with Steam Parameters
Chapter 3 Configuration of Modern Power Steam Turbines
Chapter 4 Design of Steam Path, Blading, Gland Seals, and Valves
Chapter 5 Last Stage Blades and Exhaust Hoods of LP cylinders
Chapter 6 Thermal Expansion, Bearings, and Lubrication
Part II Steam Turbine Transients and Cycling Operation
Chapter 7 Operating Conditions and Start-up Systems
for Steam-Turbine Power Units
Chapter 8 Experimental and Calculation Researches of
Chapter 9 Start-up Technologies as Applied to
Different Start-up Systems
Chapter 10 Start-up Instructions for Steam-Turbine
Power Units and Their Improvement
Chapter 11 Scheduled and Unscheduled Load Changes
within and beyond the Governed Range
Chapter 12 Cycling Operation and Its Influence on
Part III Diagnostic Monitoring and Informative
Support for Turbine Operators
Chapter 13 Automated Data Acquisition and Control
Systems for Modern Power Plants
Chapter 14 Diagnostic Monitoring of Turbine Heat-Rate
and Flow-Capacity Performances
Chapter 15 Diagnostic Monitoring of Turbine Temperature
and Thermal-Stress States
Chapter 16 Post-Operative Analysis of the Turbine’s
Part IV Lifetime Extension for Aging Steam Turbines
and Their Refurbishment
Chapter 17 Assessment and Extension of Steam Turbine Lifetime
Chapter 18 Steam Turbine Upgrade
Preface: This book is a continuation of my previous two-volume work Large Power Steam Turbines: Design & Operation (PennWell, 1997). Those volumes were conceived as an exposition of steam-turbomachinery fundamentals as they were seen by the end of the 20th century. This new book to a degree rests on its contents, not repeating previous information as far as possible without sacrifice of comprehension. The afore-mentioned work was also supplemented by another book, Wet-Steam Turbines for Nuclear Power Plants; PennWell, 2005. The present book considers the newest approaches of the latest decade in design, operation, and refurbishment of steam turbines for fossil-fuel power plants and is designed to be a final part of this trilogy.
At this writing, many people, including some professionals in power engineering, have come to view steam-turbomachinery as a completely matured technology that promises no remarkable achievements in the near future. Indeed, by the early 1990s the efficiency of the best new steam turbines had practically stabilized at the previously attained level and did not grow further. Yet, the mid-1990s brought a new breakthrough in the steam turbine technology, and this progress continues today. As a result, new possibilities can considerably raise power plant efficiency based upon qualitative improvements in the turbine steam path design and gradually applying elevated steam parameters. Dr. Wilfried Ulm of Siemens Power Generation qualified this process as “an almost unnoticed revolution in steam turbine technology” [VGB PowerTech 83, no. 1/2 (2003): 1]. These new possibilities can also impact efforts to upgrade old steam turbines in service. New approaches have also been developed and applied to handling the transient operating conditions of steam-turbine-based power units and providing information support for the operational personnel with the use of advanced computerized control and instrumentation (C&I) techniques and friendly human-machine interfaces. I marked some of these trends in all these processes in my above mentioned work, written in the mid-1990s, but what once were novelties have brought their first rich fruits in the first years of the new century. Valuable descriptions of new achievements in steam-turbomachinery and their effects were published by their developers in the late 1990s and early 2000s, but these separate publications have never been gathered together and generalized, to the best of my understanding. Among modern books on steam-turbomachinery which appeared after the afore-mentioned Large Power Steam Turbines: Design & Operation, two noteworthy books were issued just at the turn of the century and addressed primarily to power plant maintenance staff: Turbine Steam Path Damage: Theory & Practice by T.H. McCloskey, R.B. Dooley, and W.P. McNaughton (EPRI, 1999) and Turbine Steam Path: Maintenance & Repair by W.P. Sanders (PennWell, 2001).
These works summarized the current knowledge about damages in the turbine steam path and methods for revealing and repairing them. A general overview of turbomachinery for the power industry at the end of the 20th century is offered in H. Termuehlen, 100 Years of Power Plant Development: Focus on Steam and Gas Turbines as Prime Movers (ASME, 2001). The present book, as well as my previous ones, differs from those mentioned above in that it is addressed mainly to power plant operators and operation researchers and was written from their point of view. The book does not try to tell the readers how steam turbines should be designed but rather explains why they were designed as they were and compares different possible design solutions. It absorbs the experience in steam-turbine design and operation accumulated in developed and developing countries throughout the world—in the USA, Germany, Japan, Russia, Denmark, Korea, and India, among others.
In addressing the modern stage of steam turbine design and operation, it might be well to note that in recent years a few advanced and highly efficient large-output steam turbines have appeared, with the utmost steam conditions accessible at the modern technology level. Such machines produce about 1,000 MW in single capacity with main steam pressure of up to 31 MPa (4,500 psi) and main and reheat steam temperatures of up to 600-610°C (1,112-1,130°F). These turbines provide a new benchmark for steam turbine efficiency and herald new possibilities for its further development. Beside these champions, different countries have put into operation some new “ordinary” steam-turbine power units with a rather moderate single capacity (of about 200-300 MW and 500- 600 MW) and “common” supercritical steam conditions of about 25 MPa, 540-565°C (3,625 psi, 1,000-1,050°F). Owing to the use of modern technologies and new design approaches, these steam-turbine power units also exhibit good efficiency—much better than power units of the past. Most of these up-to-date power units have been constructed in such countries as Germany, Japan, Korea, China, and others that have a large experience in the use of supercritical-pressure steam-turbine power units. Modern steam-turbine power units are also coming on line after a long recess in the U.S. In parallel, new supercritical-pressure steam-turbine units have been constructed and launched in countries where such units have never been operated before. Noteworthy is that most of these new power units are launched at power plants burning solid fuel, most with coal- and lignite-fired boilers. As a result, thanks to their high efficiency, these units are notable for quite moderate gas emissions to the atmosphere.
Along with new steam turbines for “traditional” fossil-fuel power plants, noteworthy are steam turbines for combined-cycle (CC) units of a new generation. These units have a larger single capacity compared to their forerunners and relatively elevated steam conditions. Many CC units have been designed with single-shaft turbine sets (that is, with one gas turbine and one steam turbine settled at the common shaft with the common electric generator). These circumstances have prompted the use of some unusual design solutions for steam turbines and special technologies for their transients.
Mass implementation of steam-turbine power units in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s made it rather difficult to put them out of action even when they achieved and exceeded their rated lifetime. In many countries, these power units formed up a backbone of the power industry and continue to retain their importance. Under these circumstances, it has been considered desirable to extend their lifetimes as far as their reliability allows. In doing so, it is reasonable to retrofit aging turbines by replacing their design elements which accounted for most metal damages. In addition, aging steam turbines, even if relatively young, are as a rule noticeably inferior to those of very recent vintage in their efficiency. From this point of view, it is also advisable to retrofit these turbines by replacing their steam path while retaining secondary design elements that do not affect the turbine’s reliability and efficiency. Such partial refurbishment allows not only extending the turbine’s lifetime and heightening the operating reliability, but also raising remarkably the operating efficiency and flexibility owing to the use of modern design solutions. It is important to note that involving non-original equipment manufacturers in this job makes it possible to consider a very wide spectrum of possible design solutions and to use some rather unexpected applications to reach optimal results.
This book, as well as my previous ones, is mainly intended for power plant operators, owners, and designers, college students training for work in the power generation industry, as well as the audience of diverse courses and workshops in power engineering, and I believe this book will be useful for its readers. This confidence is to a great degree based on the experience of workshops and seminars I led in the recent years for power plant specialists of different countries. These workshops were accompanied by consultations on diverse operation problems appearing at steam turbines of local power units in service with the single capacity of from 200 to 800 MW, taking into consideration their specific design features and operating conditions. The book also presents some original developments worked up with my participation and implemented at different power plants in service, all of which were approved in their operation practice. Some original materials and overviews given in the book were presented at international power generation conferences in recent years and published in power engineering magazines. I would like to thank all my co-workers and co-authors for our collaboration. This especially refers to Evgeny Plotkin (presently in Israel), and I would also like to express my deep gratitude to colleagues from various countries that helped me in gathering materials and special artworks for this book. I would like to mention Alan Hesketh, Simon Hogg, Robert Scott, and Don Stephen of ALSTOM Power, Un-Hak Nah of Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction (Korea), the late Tom McCloskey of EPRI, Peter Luby of INGCHEM (Slovakia), Carlos Koeneke and Yoshinori Tanaka of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Brajesh Singh of National Thermal Power Corporation (India), Andreas Wichtmann and Wilfried Ulm of Siemens Power Generation, Paul Hurd and Rudy Koubek of Siemens Westinghouse, Hideo Nomoto, Toshihiro Matsuura, and Akira Sakuma of Toshiba. My special thanks are also to editors of The Fairmont Press for their help in preparing and publishing this book.
“Dr. Alexander S. Leyzerovich”.
Steam Turbines for Modern Fossil-Fuel Power Plants by Alexander S. Leyzerovich pdf.
⏩Author: Alexander S. Leyzerovich
⏩Publisher: CRC Press; 1 edition (July 16, 2007)
⏩Size: 14.8 MB
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