What is a Turbine?
-A Turbine is a device which converts the heat energy of steam into the kinetic energy & then to rotational energy. -The Motive Power in a steam turbine is obtained by the rate of change in momentum of a high velocity jet of steam impinging on a curved blade which is free to rotate.
-The basic cycle for the steam turbine power plant is the Rankine cycle. The modern Power plant uses the Rankine cycle modified to include superheating, regenerative feed water heating & reheating.
Based on Blading Design
Impulse turbine: Steam energy is transferred to the rotor entirely by the steam jets striking the moving blades.
Reaction turbine: Steam expands in both the stationary & moving blades. Moving blades also act as nozzles. High axial
thrust is produced.
Combination of Impulse & Reaction turbine
Based on Inlet & Outlet Steam Condition
Condensing turbines: Condensing turbines are most commonly found in electrical power plants. These turbines receive steam from a boiler and exhaust it to a condenser. The exhausted steam is at a pressure well below atmospheric.
• Back pressure or non-Condensing turbines: In a backpressure steam turbine, energy from high-pressure inlet steam is efficiently converted into electricity, and low-pressure exhaust steam is provided to a plant process.
• Extraction turbines: Medium or low-pressure steam required by the process plant is extracted from the intermediate stage of a condensing or back pressure turbine.
what is a steam turbine, its working principle
Steam turbines convert a part of the energy of the steam evidenced by high temperature and pressure into mechanical power-in turn electrical power
The steam from the boiler is expanded in a nozzle, resulting in the emission of a high velocity jet. This jet of steam impinges on the moving vanes or blades, mounted on a shaft. Here it undergoes a change of direction of motion which gives rise to a change in momentum and therefore a force.
The motive power in a steam turbine is obtained by the rate of change in momentum of a high velocity jet of steam impinging on a curved blade which is free to rotate.
The conversion of energy in the blades takes place by impulse, reaction or impulse reaction principle.
Steam turbines are available in a few kW (as prime mover) to 1500 MW Impulse turbine are used for capacity up to the working substance differs for different types of turbines.
Steam Turbine Working and Types Video
Application of steam turbine
• Power generation
• Petroleum/Gas processing,
• Food processing,
• Refinery, Petrochemical,
• Pulp & Paper mills.
Types of Steam Turbine
Based on the Steam Movement
Combination of Reaction and Impulse Turbine
Based on Pressure Stages
Multi-phase Reaction and Impulse Turbine
Based on the Steam Movement
Based on Governing Methodology
Based on Heat-drop Procedure
Turbine Condensation through Generators
Turbine Condensation Intermediary Phase Extractions
Based on Vapor Conditions from Inlet to Turbine
Less pressure (1.2 Ata to 2 Ata)
Very high pressure (170 Ata)
Supercritical (>225 Ata)
Medium pressure (40 Ata)
High pressure (> 40 Ata)
Based on Industrial Applications
Variable rotational speed having stationary turbines
Fixed rotational speed having stationary turbines
Variable rotational speed having non-stationary turbines
Do not forget to download the pdf because it contains more information about Steam Turbine with picture.
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