Preface to Robotics for Electronics Manufacturing Principles and Applications in Cleanroom Automation By Karl Mathia pdf.
This book is about the design and application of industrial cleanroom robots in electronics manufacturing. It is intended as a hands-on technical reference for engineers and factory managers involved in manufacturing electronic devices in cleanroom environments. The book provides insight into the principles and applications of industrial cleanroom robotics, in particular in semiconductor manufacturing, the most demanding process in terms of cleanliness requirements. Other examples are the hard disk, flat panel display, and solar industries, which also use high levels of cleanroom automation and robotics. In contrast to the complex manufacturing process, the typical robotic designs often utilize relatively simple robot kinematics in the highly structured environments of process and metrology tools. Some industries, for example the semiconductor front-end industry, are governed by technical standards and guidelines, which are generally helpful during the design process of robotic systems. On the other hand, robotic engineers in electronics manufacturing face challenges that are unknown in other markets, most importantly the cleanliness required in certain factories. Strict cleanliness requirements have resulted in two categories of cleanroom robots: ‘atmospheric robots’ for high-quality cleanliness at ambient atmospheric pressure, and ‘vacuum robots’ for extreme cleanliness in enclosures under various vacuum pressures. These two categories are the focus of this book.
The book is organized into seven chapters. Chapters 1 and 2 provide an overview of industrial robotics and industrial cleanroom robotics and are not prerequisites for the technical Chapters 3 to 7:
Chapter 1 provides an overview of the history and different types of industrial robots, and their socioeconomic impact.
Chapter 2 provides an overview of electronics manufacturing in cleanroom environments, cleanliness standards, and the emergence of cleanroom robots in semiconductor manufacturing.
Chapter 3 presents guidelines and best practices for the design of atmospheric robots, including the design example of a wafer-handling robot. Chapter 4 presents guidelines and best practices for the design of vacuum robots, including the design example of a wafer-handling vacuum robot for automating a six-sided cluster tool.
Chapter 5 reviews common kinematic structures before discussing the kinematics of SCARA-type robots that are commonly used in electronics manufacturing. The forward kinematics model of a three-link robot arm is derived
Chapter 6 discusses a general dynamic model for robot manipulators and derives the specific model for a three-link robot arm. A decentralized joint control strategy suitable for networked robot control is established.
Chapter 7 introduces several test and characterization methods and their underlying theory. Suitable test fixture designs are described. A total of 29 examples throughout the book illustrate applications of the presented theory and concepts. All numerical examples were programmed in Matlab®. The International System of Units (SI units) is used whenever possible. For convenience some obsolete units that are still in use are also provided. SI base units, derived SI units, and unit conversion tables for non-SI units are listed in Appendix A. Applicable industry standards are listed at the end of each chapter. Contact information for the relevant publishing standards organizations are listed in Appendix B. Standard sets of conditions for temperature and pressure (STP) are listed in Appendix C. These are used to allow comparisons between different sets of experimental data and are relevant for applications in controlled vacuum and atmospheric environments.
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