Reinforced Concrete Design of Tall Buildings 1st Edition by Bungale S. Taranath.
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List of Figures
List of Tables
A Special Acknowledgment
Chapter 1 Design Concept
Chapter 2 Gravity Systems
Chapter 3 Lateral Load-Resisting Systems
Chapter 4 Wind Loads
Chapter 5 Seismic Design
Chapter 6 Seismic Design Examples and Details
Chapter 7 Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings
Chapter 8 Tall Buildings
Chapter 9 Special Topics
ICC Foreword: The field of structural engineering and concrete design of buildings has gone through enormous changes since the time I was in college in the mid-1970s. At that time, one of the best books on the subject of concrete was Reinforced Concrete Fundamentals by Phil M. Ferguson. Computerized design of concrete buildings was in its infancy, and I took my stack of 100 “punch cards” for even the simplest design of a reinforced concrete column to a computer center to be processed by a roomsized central campus computer.
Advances in technology, state-of-the-art research, globalization in the immediate transfer of information, and many other trends have transformed design by leaps and bounds. While the basics of fl exure member design, compression, torsion, and related concepts have remained fundamentally the same, today’s structural engineering students and practicing engineers have access to multiple computer design programs through the most powerful computers on their laptops. Hence, it is much more diffi cult to assist today’s engineers in identifying the best and most appropriate resources among hundreds of textbooks, articles, research papers, and online information. Tall and super-tall concrete buildings are very common now, not just in developed countries, but in most parts of the world, including highly populated countries such as China and India.
Reinforced Concrete Design of Tall Buildings by Dr. Taranath leads readers through an exploration of the intricacies of today’s concrete design in a skillful manner keeping real-life issues in mind. The most complicated issues of design are presented in an easy-to-understand language, supplemented by numerous illustrations to further enhance the understanding of the subject. This book is packed with design examples, with Chapter 6 dedicated entirely to seismic design examples.
The most recent fi ndings of building damage or failures caused by seismic or high-wind events have resulted in extensive changes in the areas of seismic and wind designs and detailing. Advances in research and technology necessitate that the International Building Code (IBC) and ACI 318 be published every three years to keep up with innovations and new technologies and research. Both seismic and wind designs based on today’s building codes seem to be more complicated than ever before. Accordingly, Dr. Taranath has included updates to ACI 318–08 and the recently released 2009 IBC, as well as the new wind-design provisions of the National Building Code of Canada. To facilitate easy application and use, complete chapters have been dedicated to seismic and wind designs.
Failure patterns, considerations for explosions, progressive collapse, and alternative designs for the reduction of the potential for progressive collapse are other important and current design issues that are covered in this book. Finally, the seismic rehabilitation of existing buildings, which is seldom found in a reinforced concrete design book, is extensively addressed in the last chapter.
In addition to overseeing most of the technical support publications of the International Code Council (ICC), many of which are in the fi eld of structural engineering, I also review an extensive number of books for the ICC’s joint efforts and partnerships on a regular basis. This book is truly one of the most interesting and well-laid-out publications that I have reviewed, which is why it was an easy decision for the ICC to be a partner in its co-branding. Structural engineers comprise the most important core of building safety and sustainability professionals by developing responsible, effi – cient, effective, safe, and economical designs. This book is a signifi cant contribution to that effort.
Hamid A. Naderi
International Code Council
Preface: As I reflect on my career as a practicing engineer, I am struck by the profound conceptual and methodological changes that computer-enhanced design has brought to our field. Today, and especially in the last decade or so of computer use and software engineering, we can develop numerical solutions to an astonishing number of decimals with a degree of precision that was previously unfathomable. On account of liability issues, engineering innovations these days must also be analytically proven and strenuously tested to an extent unknown in the past. In spite of these concerns, the art of being able to smell or feel a reasonable solution must necessarily continue to exist. Without such intuition and creativity, we might tend to rely on computer applications as engineering itself, instead of as a necessary tool.
As structural engineers, our primary task is to take someone else’s vision of a project, convert it into analytical and numerical models, and then produce a set of buildable documents. However, the current trend in engineering education seems to focus more on the behavior of computer-based mathematical models while seldom acknowledging their fallibilities. Given this scenario, one may wonder if the era of engineers who endorsed structural attitudes based on their qualitative knowledge of the behavior of the structures is gone.
There is no doubt that navigating complicated software is certainly a critical and necessary part of a designer’s vocabulary. My sense, however, is that such skills would be more powerful, accurate, and useful if built upon a solid foundation of engineering principles and conceptual knowledge. I am not alone in voicing these ideas; a plethora of recently published journal articles, opinion pieces, and conference presentations address this ever-increasing gap between the conceptual approach and the scientific illusion created by computer solutions.
These thoughts occur to me in my day-to-day engineering and more specifically as I was preparing this manuscript. Therefore, the challenge I set for myself in this book was to bridge these two approaches: one that was based on intuitive skill and experience, and the other that relied on computer skills. Imagine then the design possibilities when experiential intuition marries unfathomable precision and numerical accuracy. Engineers are generally characterized as imaginative in their design approach as supported by historical evidence, which includes the creation of ancient structures, medieval cathedrals, and the skyscrapers of today. None of these structures, except for those built in the last decade, were developed using intense calculations as we know them today, but were more products of inventive imagery. Even with the availability of immense analytical backup, imaginative thinking can and must be effectively used to apply basic concepts to complex problems. Therefore, the stimulus for writing this book was to develop imaginative approaches by examples, and, where appropriate, relate these specific examples to building codes that are essential and mandatory tools of the trade. The motivation that propelled me into writing this book addresses the question frequently proposed to the designer by the architects: “Can we do this?” And, in the fl ash-track world that we live in, the time frame allowed for coming up with an answer is measured in days, and, sometimes, even in hours. Such a time constraint does not allow for extensive research or for time-consuming analytical procedures. What is needed is the proverbial back-of-the-envelope analysis that serves as a quick means of evaluating the efficacy of a concept that would then also serve as a check of computer solutions. Typically, when we prepare a back-of-the-envelope design, the purpose is to make sure we get into the ballpark; once you are in, it is easy enough to find the right row in the analysis phase, and, eventually, to find the right seat.
Finding the ballpark is thus an essential part of the conceptual design. As a designer you will soon learn that once a building program is set it cannot be changed, and the only real option is to mitigate mistakes in concept. On the other hand, if the fi rst step is in the right direction with allowances for potential contingencies, the design will fl ow smoothly so long as the design has some breathing room.
Chapter 1 discusses selected fundamental concepts. The objective is to develop a “feeling” for overall structural behavior and to provide the designer with the basic insight necessary to the effective development of a design. The subsequent chapters provide detailed discussions of the basic concepts.
Chapter 2 deals with the behavior of gravity components. In addition to common types of framings such as one-way and two-way slabs, novel systems, such as haunch girder systems, are also discussed. An in-depth discussion of prestressed concrete design is presented along with approximate methods to assist engineers in “doing schematics in a meeting.” The focus of Chapter 3 is the design of lateral load–resisting systems. The objective is to control the building behavior through a bracing program that is effective from both the perspectives of cost and behavior. The design concept must be less expensive and better than its alternative if it is to be accepted or adapted. Thus, it is incumbent on the designer to create a cost-effective design in order for it to be realized. This chapter discusses fl at slab-frames, coupled shear walls, core-supported structures, tube buildings, and spine-wall structures.
Chapter 4 deals with the determination of design wind loads using the provisions of ASCE 7–05. Wind-tunnel procedures using rigid, high-frequency base and aeroelastic models are discussed, including analytical methods for determining wind response and motion perception. Guidelines are presented for evaluating the acceptability of wind-induced motions of tall buildings. Chapter 5 covers seismic designs. It develops a design methodology for each component and shows how seismically induced demands may force members to deform well beyond their elastic limits. Detailing considerations for such nonelastic excursions are discussed, and, where appropriate, codifi cation concepts are reduced to a level of analytical simplicity appropriate for the design.
The goals are to reduce component design to as simple a process as possible and to highlight design objectives often concealed in the codifi cation procedure. Also discussed in this chapter is the design approach prior to IBC 2002, in which the magnitude of seismic force and level of detailing were strictly a function of the structure’s location. This is compared with relatively recent provisions, in which these are not only a function of the structure’s location but also of its use and occupancy, and of the type of soil it rests upon. This comparison will be particularly useful for engineers practicing in seismically low- and moderate-risk areas of the United States, who previously did not have to deal with aspects of seismic design. This chapter concludes with an in-depth review of structural dynamic theory.
Chapter 6 provides examples of seismic designs and detailing requirements of concrete buildings. Detailing provisions prescribed in ACI 318–05/08 (Chapters 1 through 20 for buildings assigned to SDC A or B, and in Chapter 21 for those in SDC C and higher) are discussed. Also presented are the designs of special moment frames, shear walls, fl oor diaphragm-chords, and collectors. Recent revisions to ACI 318 are discussed in the fi nal section.
Chapter 7 is devoted to the structural rehabilitation of seismically vulnerable buildings. Design differences between a code-sponsored approach and the concept of ductility trade-off for strength are discussed, including seismic defi ciencies and common upgrade methods.
Chapter 8 is dedicated to the design of tall buildings. It begins with a discussion on the evolution of their structural forms. Case studies of structural systems that range from run-of-the-mill bracing techniques to unique systems—including megaframes and spine-wall structures—are examined.
Finally, Chapter 9 covers a wide range of topics. It begins with a discussion on damping devices that are used to reduce the perception of building motions, including passive viscoleatic dampers, tuned mass dampers, slashing water dampers, tuned liquid column dampers, and simple and nested pendulum dampers. It then deals with seismic isolation and energy dissipation techniques. This is followed by a discussion on preliminary analysis techniques such as portal and cantilever methods and an in-depth discourse on torsion analysis of open section shear walls with a particular emphasis on their warping behavior. The fi nal section of this chapter covers performance-based designs (PBDs) for the structural design of new buildings. This approach, used for the seismic design of very tall buildings constructed in the western United States within the last few years, has set in motion new ways of doing things. A discussion on the more challenging design issues that may defy codifi ed doctrines, such as height limits, the selection of response modifi cation factors, and peer-review requirements, is presented to introduce engineers to this emerging technology.
Before concluding the preface, it is worth remembering that reinforced concrete as a building material provides a medium that inspires architectural freedom. The design is not peculiar to the material and must satisfy the same basic fundamental laws of equilibrium, compatibility, and compliance with the appropriate stress–strain relationship. The choice of concrete does not pose constraints on the architectural expressionism of structure nor on the free form of today’s architectural styles.
This book is a modest attempt to explore the world of concrete as it applies to the construction of buildings while simultaneously striving to seek answers to the challenges I set for myself. It is directed toward consulting engineers, and, within the academy, the book may be helpful to educators and students alike, particularly as a teaching tool in courses for students who have completed an introductory course in structural engineering and seek a deeper understanding of structural design principles and practices. It is my hope that this book serves as a comprehensive reference for the structural design of reinforced concrete buildings, particularly those that are tall.
“Bungale S. Taranath”.
Reinforced Concrete Design of Tall Buildings 1st Edition by Bungale S. Taranath pdf.
⏩Author: Bungale S. Taranath
⏩Publisher: CRC Press
⏩Puplication Date: December 14, 2009
⏩Size: 33.4 MB
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