Refrigeration systems and applications third Edition by Ibrahim Dincer
Refrigeration is a multidisciplinary area in which science and engineering meet to try to solve humankind’s refrigeration needs in many sectoral applications, ranging from cooling of electronic devices to food cooling. It has a multidisciplinary character, involving a combination of several disciplines, including mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, chemistry, food engineering, civil engineering, and many more. The refrigeration industry was big in the past and has drastically expanded during the past two decades to play a significant role in societies and their economies.
The economic impact of refrigeration technology throughout the world has therefore become more important and this will continue in the future due to the increasing demand for refrigeration systems and applications. This technology serves in countless ways to improve living conditions. This third edition of the book has been improved and enhanced to cover the thermodynamic concepts in a better way, to include more materials and examples on energy and exergy analyses, energy and exergy efficiencies, and coefficients of performance, to include material on food refrigeration and food freezing applications, to add new and unique materials on renewable energy-based integrated refrigeration systems and the environmental impact and sustainability assessment of refrigeration systems, and to further clarify several sections. It is strongly believed that the book will be of interest to students, refrigeration engineers, practitioners, and producers, as well as people and institutions who are interested in refrigeration systems and applications. It is also a valuable and readable reference text and source for anyone who wishes to learn more about refrigeration and analysis.
The first chapter addresses general concepts, fundamental principles, and general aspects of thermodynamic concepts, analysis and performance assessment methods to furnish the reader with background information that is of relevance to the analysis of refrigeration systems and applications. Chapter 2 provides useful information on several types of refrigerants and their environmental impact, as well as their thermodynamic properties. Chapter 3 delves into the specifics of refrigeration system components and their operating and technical aspects, analysis details, utilization perspectives, etc. before examining refrigeration cycles and systems. Chapter 4 presents comprehensive coverage of basic refrigeration cycles and systems for various applications, along with energy and exergy analyses. Chapter 5 provides comprehensive material on advanced refrigeration cycles and systems along with non-conventional refrigeration systems for numerous applications with operational and technical details. There are illustrative examples on system analyses through energy and exergy methods which make this book unique. Chapter 6 covers the new topic of renewable energy sources for refrigeration applications, with various examples and a case study of an integrated renewable energy-based refrigeration system that generates both power and cooling. Chapter 7 is on heat pipes and their micro- and macro-scale applications, technical, design, manufacturing and operational aspects, heat pipe utilization in HVAC applications, and their performance evaluation. Chapter 8 presents comprehensive coverage of food preservation and its methods (physical, chemical, and biological), food quality, and energy use in food preservation technologies. This chapter deals with food refrigeration technology, particularly food preservation by refrigeration, food cooling systems and applications, cool and cold storage, transport refrigeration, respiratory heat generation, moisture loss in a broad perspective, effects of cooling on products, physical and microbiological changes, and detailed information on how to select cooling methods, specification, energy use processing conditions, and so forth.
Additionally, the reader is provided with a practical historical and technological background of refrigeration and new applications in refrigeration, along with some practical examples. Cool and cold storage, controlled atmosphere storage, cold stores and their operation and maintenance, control and measuring devices for practical applications, machinery and system selection for cold stores, feasibility studies of cold stores, insulation practices, energy analysis and saving techniques, transport refrigeration, cooling load calculations for the systems and products, etc. are also discussed in detail. Chapter 9 provides useful information on various techniques and technical details for food freezing applications, freezing machinery, ice-making systems, and freeze-drying systems and applications, and their technical and economic evaluations as well as several methods for predicting freezing times of products. Chapter 10 discusses some critical aspects related to environmental impact and sustainable development, and linkages to refrigeration systems. Numerous topics, such as energy and environmental impact, and energy and sustainability as well as exergy and sustainability, are presented in addition to some tools such energy and exergy analyses for analysis, design, assessment, and improvement of refrigeration systems. Some further discussion is offered on system greenization, particularly for refrigeration systems and applications.
A comprehensive case study is presented to provide a clear picture about the environmental impact and sustainability aspects of refrigeration systems. Incorporated through this book are many wide-ranging examples which provide useful information for practical applications. Conversion factors and thermophysical properties of various materials, as well as a large number of food refrigeration data, are listed in the appendices in the International System of Units (SI). Complete references are included with each chapter to direct the curious and interested reader to further information.
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