## Process Modeling, Simulation, and Control for Chemical Engineers, Second Edition by William L. Luyben

The first edition of this book appeared over fifteen years ago. It was the first chemical engineering textbook to combine modeling, simulation, and control. It also was the first chemical engineering book to present sampled-data control. This choice of subjects proved to be popular with both students and teachers and of considerable practical utility.

During the ten-year period following publication, I resisted suggestions from the publisher to produce a second edition because I felt there were really very few useful new developments in the field. The control hardware had changed drastically, but the basic concepts and strategies of process control had undergone little change. Most of the new books that have appeared during the last fifteen years are very similar in their scope and content to the first edition. Basic classical control is still the major subject.

However, in the last five years, a number of new and useful techniques have been developed. This is particularly true in the area of multivariable control. Therefore, I feel it is time for a second edition. In the area of process control, new methods of analysis and synthesis of control systems have been developed and need to be added to the process control engineer’s bag of practical methods. The driving force for much of this development was the drastic increase in energy costs in the 1970s. This led to major redesigns of many new and old processes, using energy integration and more complex processing schemes. The resulting plants are more interconnected. This increases control loop interactions and expands the dimension of control problems. There are many important processes in which three, four, or even more control loops interact.

As a result, there has been a lot of research activity in multivariable control, both in academia and in industry. Some practical, useful tools have been developed to design control systems for these multivariable processes. The second edition includes a fairly comprehensive discussion of what I feel are the useful techniques for controlling multivariable processes.

Another significant change over the last decade has been the dramatic increase in the computational power readily available to engineers. Most calculations can be performed on personal computers that have computational horsepower equal to that provided only by mainframes a few years ago. This means that engineers can now routinely use more rigorous methods of analysis and synthesis. The second edition includes more computer programs. All are suitable for execution on a personal computer.

In the area of mathematical modeling, there has been only minor progress. We still are able to describe the dynamics of most systems adequately for engineering purposes. The trade-off between model rigor and computational effort has shifted toward more precise models due to the increase in computational power noted above. The second edition includes several more examples of models that are more rigorous.

In the area of simulation, the analog computer has almost completely disappeared. Therefore, analog simulation has been deleted from this edition. Many new digital integration algorithms have been developed, particularly for handling large numbers of “stiff” ordinary differential equations. Computer programming is now routinely taught at the high school level. The-second edition includes an expanded treatment of iterative convergence methods and- of numerical integration algorithms for ordinary differential equations, including both explicit and implicit methods.

The second edition presents some of the material in a slightly different sequence. Fifteen additional years of teaching experience have convinced me that it is easier for the students to understand the time, Laplace, and frequency techniques if both the dynamics and the control are presented together for each domain. Therefore, open loop dynamics and closed loop control are both discussed in the time domain, then in the Laplace domain, and finally in the frequency domain. The z domain is discussed in Part VII. There has been a modest increase in the number of examples presented in the book. The number of problems has been greatly increased. Fifteen years of quizzes have yielded almost 100 new problems.

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