## Preface of Practical Design of Reinforced Concrete Buildings.

The goal of this book is to provide a practical, code-based approach to the structural design of reinforced concrete building elements. The book is based upon the ACI concrete code (ACI 318-14—Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary) published by the American Concrete Institute. The ACI 318-14 is consistently referred to in this book as “code.” The book is divided into three sections. The first section (Chapters 1 through 5) deals with understanding the basic concepts of forces that could act on structural elements—bending, shear, axial forces, axial forces combined with bending, diagonal tension, shear friction, and torsion. The code requirements are explained, and discussions of materials used in reinforced concrete are provided. Procedures to calculate design loads and determine the load path of buildings are explained.

The second section (Chapters 6 through 12) deals with the design, detailing, inspection, construction, and testing of various building structural concrete elements—slabs, beams, columns, footings, and walls. The third section (Chapters 13 through 15) provides discussions on various types of buildings in the United States, a detailed explanation of the calculations of wind loads acting on buildings, and an introduction to the philosophy of engineering and critical thinking. Floor plans of two types of buildings are provided in Chapter 1, and the calculations of various elements of these buildings are manually performed to illustrate the design of the buildings. The design examples are included in the appendices of the book.

Chapter 1—“Main Design Concepts”—deals with a variety of concepts beginning with a brief overview of the history of concrete. The basic mechanism of reinforced concrete, the types of loads that can act on reinforced concrete elements, and the strength and serviceability requirements are discussed. Models of two types of multistoried buildings in the form of drawings are provided. Both buildings are ten storied—one with beams and columns and the other with flat plates supported on columns and shear walls. The concepts of different structural elements of these two buildings, such as one-way slabs, two-way slabs supported on beams, flat slabs, flat plates, columns, shear walls, and various types of footings, are introduced. What types of forces can act on these elements? Theories of calculations for each type of force is explained—bending, shear, shear friction, compression, tension, torsion, and axial forces combined with bending are examined to prepare the student to understand the code requirements and design methodology. The concept of load path of a building structure is explained. A general arrangement of the code is discussed. There was a major change in the arrangement of the ACI 318 during its 2014 edition as compared to the previous editions. It is advised that professors and students spend a great deal of time on this chapter to understand the subsequent chapters on the code and the design. Chapter 2—“Properties of Materials Used in Reinforced Concrete”—provides discussions on the standards and properties of various materials used in reinforced concrete—cement, aggregates, steel, water, and admixtures. Concrete mix design procedures are demonstrated. Chapter 3—“Design Loads”—is based on ASCE 7-10 “Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures” published by the American Society of Civil Engineers and IBC (2015)—International Building Code—published by the International Code Council. The seven load combinations and procedures to calculate the dead load, floor live load, roof live load, snow load, and rain load are illustrated. Earthquake loads are not addressed in this edition of the book.

Wind loads are dealt with separately in Chapter 14. Load calculations for various structural elements of buildings are demonstrated. Chapter 4—“ACI Strength Requirements”—deals with strength requirements of the code for the structural elements to resist bending, shear, axial forces, torsion, shear friction, and axial forces combined with bending. Chapter 5—“Other ACI Code Requirements”—discusses the structural systems and the structural analysis methodologies permitted by the code along with strength and serviceability requirements. Topics include deflection, cracking, durability, sustainability, integrity, fire resistance, embedments, connection design, and strength reduction factors. The design properties of concrete and steel are also discussed. This book uses normal weight concrete and steel with a yield strength of 60,000 psi. Chapter 6—“Slabs”—includes the design of one-way slabs with beams, simply supported and continuous slabs, two-way slabs with beams, two-way flat plates, and flat slabs. The calculations of the required strength, design strength, flexure, and shear reinforcement along with their detailing are demonstrated. Two design methods for two-way slabs—direct design method and equivalent frame method—are used in the design calculations of the two-way slabs. Chapter 7—“Beams”—includes the design for flexure, shear, and torsion of rectangular beams, T beams, L beams, singly and doubly reinforced beams, and deep beams. The required strength, design strength, and reinforcement requirements of the codes are discussed. Chapter 8—“Columns”—deals with the design of short and slender columns for axial loads, and axial loads combined with bending. The first-order analysis and P–Δ effects on columns are illustrated. Chapter 9—“Walls”—introduces the student to gravity and lateral load distribution on reinforced concrete walls along with the code requirements for strength and reinforcement.

hapter 10—“Foundations”—deals with various types of foundation designs and the situations where each type of foundation is adopted. Foundations include pad (spread) footings, continuous wall footings, combined footings, strapped footings, pile caps, and mat foundations. Chapter 11—“Reinforcement Details”—discusses the code requirements for minimum spacing of reinforcement, hooks, splices, and development length of steel bars in reinforced concrete design. Chapter 12—“Drawings, Inspections, and Testing”—provides students an opportunity to understand what to expect when they assume working for a design office or at a construction site. It includes the author’s hands-on experience in the preparation of structural drawings, inspection, testing, and construction of concrete elements. It includes how an engineer should prepare reports while performing inspection-like duties.

Chapter 13—“Various Types of Buildings”—introduces students to various types of buildings constructed in the United States—wood, steel, concrete, precast concrete, and masonry. Chapter 14—“Wind Load Analysis of Buildings”—is a bonus chapter that discusses in detail the concept of wind load in accordance with ASCE 7-10 (Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures). Chapter 15—“Engineering in Popper’s Three Worlds”—introduces engineers to the philosophy of engineering and how to think critically. After the author attended the graduate school in humanities and social sciences at the University of Middlesex, he experienced a vast difference in his approach to structural engineering. Philosophers have not paid sufficient attention to engineering and vice versa. Exposure to philosophy would enable engineers to understand the criticism to engineering and ethics of the profession and to better their understanding of engineering. Problems for Chapters 1 through 10 are included in the appendices. The structural calculations are performed on engineering graph sheets, simulating the actual way structural design is performed. Manual calculations are included to provide a human touch of engineering practice.

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