Piping and pipeline engineering: design, construction, maintenance, integrity, and repair by G A Antaki
This book is written to present in sequence, and in a way that balances practice and theory, the fundamental principles in materials, design, fabrication, inspection, testing, operation, maintenance and integrity of plant piping systems and pipelines. The book is intended for designers, construction engineers and inspectors, project engineers, system and maintenance engineers. It applies to plant piping systems and pipelines in power, utilities, waterworks, and chemical process industries, as well as oil and gas pipelines.
The author wrote this book with two objectives in mind: first, to convey the big picture, the fundamental qualitative steps to any successful piping and pipeline activity, whether it is a routine maintenance work package, or a new multi-million-dollar project. The second objective is to explain the quantitative details, calculations and techniques essential in supporting competent decisions. Over the years, each industry has developed expertise and technology to resolve its unique challenges. Yet, the fundamental engineering concepts (materials, design, construction and integrity) are the same, and much is to be gained by understanding how different industries approach and resolve similar problems. That is why the book covers both piping systems and pipelines.
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The first chapter explains the many codes, standards and regulations, essential in the work of industry. This first chapter, as does the rest of the book, focuses on the practice in the United States, in particular the American Society of Mechanical Engineers’ B31 Code. But this practice is similar in many ways to other codes, standards and practices applied around the world. Chapter 2 highlights the seven fundamental areas of competent piping and pipeline engineering. Presented in the format of a checklist, this chapter is a road map to successful piping and pipeline projects and operations. Chapter 3 describes pipe and fitting material characteristics and properties that constitute the foundation of the design rules, construction methods, inspection and maintenance practices, and integrity analysis. Chapters 4 to 12 address mechanical design and integrity, starting with common operating conditions (pressure, weight, temperature), progressing to occasional operating conditions (vibration, water-hammer, pressure transients), and concluding with extreme loading (high winds, earthquake, and explosions). Chapters 13 and 14 present the unique design aspects of sub-sea and underground pipelines. Logically following design is shop fabrication and field erection. These are addressed in chapters 15 to 19, and include welding, mechanical joining, non-destructive examination, pressure and leak testing of fittings, components and whole systems. The piping system or pipeline having been designed and constructed is now placed into service. While performing its function, the system starts to age and degrade.
Chapter 20 covers the complex question of corrosion and degradation mechanisms in a practical manner to help field engineers understand, classify and diagnose the causes and effects of corrosion and degradation in service. Having recognized the inevitable degradation mechanisms at play during operation, comes what is perhaps the most critical decision of operations personnel, maintenance inspectors and field engineers: to determine the fitness for continued service of a degraded component or system. The knowledge gained in the previous chapters (codes, materials, design, fabrication, inspection, testing, corrosion) is used in chapter 21 to make fitness-for-service and run-or-repair decisions. Chapter 22 covers maintenance and in-service inspection practices and techniques, including an introduction to failure analysis. Whether maintenance practices are regulated (for example in the nuclear power industry or oil and gas pipeline industries) or left to the discretion of operating companies, several fundamental maintenance strategies described in chapter 22 will apply. Chapter 23 describes a broad range of pipe and pipeline repair techniques, each with its advantages and shortcomings. Chapter 24 covers the unique aspects of plastic pipe and fittings, and Chapter 25 is an introduction to valve selection and sizing.
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