Piping and Instrumentation Diagram Development
Part 1: Fundamentals of P&ID Development This part covers the fundamentals of P&IDs and P&ID development. Chapters 1 to 5 comprise Part 1 of this book. At the beginning I will explain the nature and importance of P&IDs (Chapter 1). Then I will explain the milestones in developing P&IDs (Chapter 2). In Chapter 3 the “court of game”, or different sections of a P&ID sheet will be explained. In Chapter 4, the basic rules of drafting P&IDs will be discussed. Chapter 5 talks about the thought process for developing P&IDs and what goals a designer needs to look for to develop a good P&ID. When talking about “piping and instrumentation diagrams” it seems the topic can be explained by explaining two elements of piping (and equipment) and instrumentation. However, for different reasons I have decided to divide the topic into the three elements of pipes and equipment, instrumentation/control systems, and utility generation and networks.
Part 2 is devoted to pipes and equipment, Part 3 will cover instrumentation and control systems, and Part 4 covers topics related to utilities. For each of these elements the skills for P&ID development is explained together with plenty of general practices for each component. Part 2: Pipes and Equipment The majority of process items (pipes and equipment) in different P&IDs are pipes and pipe appurtenances, valves (manual and automatic), containers (tanks and vessels), fluid movers (including pump, compressor, fan, and blower), and heat exchangers. Part 2 has seven chapters. In Chapter 6, pipe and pipe fittings are discussed. Chapter 7 belongs to different types of valves. Chapter 8 provides information about the development of P&IDs considering inspection and maintenance. As such provision needs to be made for specific types of pipes and valve arrangement and this topic is placed after Chapter 6. Chapter 9 discuss different types of containers including tanks and vessels and the way we develop their P&IDs. Chapter 10 covers fluid movers. Fluid movers include liquid movers or pumps and gas/vapor movers or compressors, blowers, and fans. Chapter 11 talks about heat transfer units. They are mainly divided into heat exchangers and furnaces (fired heaters). Pressure safety devices (PSDs) are discussed in Chapter 12. Although one main portion of PSDs are pressure safety valves (PSVs), and are a special type of valves, it was decided to devote a separate chapter to them. The reason is that another portion of PSD is rupture disks, which are not a type of valve, and also the concept of PSDs is adequately important to consider a separate chapter for them.
Part 3: Instrumentation and Control Part 3 comprises the four Chapters of 13, 14, 15, and 16. Chapter 13 developed to give a basic practical idea about instrumentation and control to the reader. As is mentioned there, the control system, or in a more complete phrase integrated control and safety, in each plant has three main elements. In Chapter 14 the concept of control loop and the method of developing control loops on P&ID are discussed. The first element of control is covered in Chapter 14 as “plant control”. The other two elements, interlock and alarm systems are covered in Chapters 15 and 16.
Part 4: Utilities In Chapter 17, the reader will learn about utility systems in a process plant and how to develop their P&IDs. When talking about utilities, there are two separate concepts that should be discussed: utility generation and then the distribution of utilities and the collection of “used” utilities. Both of them are discussed in this chapter.
Part 5: Additional Information and Wrap‐up Part 5 covers additional information to that covered in the previous chapters. Part 5 has two chapters, Chapters 17 and 18. Chapter 17 covers some additional small systems (tracing and insulation, utility stations, safety showers and eye washers, sampling systems, and corrosion coupons) and also an important topic that is very important in P&ID development. The important topic, covered as part of chapter 17, is “design pressure and temperature considerations”. This topic covers precautions should be taken when tying together different process elements in P&IDs. In chapter 18 some units that could be categorized in the previous chapters are presented. The important concept of design temperature and design pressure is also studied here. Chapter 19 could be considered as summary of the previous chapters. In this chapter a general methodology is provided for P&ID development of a new item (not familiar for the designer) and then P&ID development of some common systems (like chemical injection system, silo and solid transfer, etc.) is brought. At the end P&ID reviewing and checking is discussed.
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