Materials Chemistry Second Edition by Bradley D. Fahlman.
Most colleges and universities now have courses and degree programs related to materials science. Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic, organic, and nanobased materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field in a concise format. The material contained herein is most appropriate for junior/senior undergraduate students, as well as first-year graduate students in chemistry, physics, and engineering fields. In addition, this textbook has also been shown to be extremely useful for researchers in industry as an initial source to learn about materials/techniques. A comprehensive list of references is provided for each chapter, which is essential for more detailed topical research.
It is a daunting task for a textbook to remain contemporary, especially when attempting to cover evolving fields such as advanced polymeric materials and nanotechnology, as well as applications related to energy storage, biomedicine, and microelectronics, among others. Accordingly, I began working on updates for Materials Chemistry while the first edition was still in production! The 2nd edition continues to offer innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout. After providing a historical perspective for the field of materials in the first chapter, the following additions/changes have been adopted in this greatly expanded edition: The solid-state chemistry chapter uses color illustrations of crystalline unit cells and digital photos of models to clarify their structures. This edition features more archetypical unit cells and includes fundamental principles of X-ray crystallography and band theory. In addition, the ample amorphous-solids section has been expanded to include more details regarding zeolite syntheses, as well as ceramics classifications and their biomaterial applications. Sections on sol–gel techniques and cementitious materials also remain, which are largely left out of most solid-state textbooks.
The metals chapter has been re-organized for clarity, and continues to treat the full spectrum of powder metallurgical methods, complex phase behaviors of the Fe-C system and steels, and topics such as magnetism, corrosion inhibition, hydrogen storage, and shape-memory phenomena. The mining/processing of metals has also been expanded to include photographs of various processes occurring in an actual steel-making plant. The structure/properties of other metallic classes, such as the coinage metals and other alloys, has also been expanded in this edition.
The semiconductor chapter addresses the evolution of modern transistors, as well as IC fabrication and photovoltaics. Building on the fundamentals presented earlier, more details regarding the band structure of semiconductors is now included, as well as discussions of GaAs vs. Si for microelectronics applications, and surface reconstruction nomenclature. The emerging field of ‘soft lithographic’ patterning is now included in this chapter, and thin film deposition methodologies are also greatly expanded to now include more fundamental aspects of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD). The current trends in applications such as LEDs/OLEDs, thermoelectric devices, and photovoltaics (including emerging technologies such as dye-sensitized solar cells) are also provided in this chapter.
The polymeric/‘soft’ materials chapter represents the largest expansion for the 2nd edition. This chapter describes all polymeric classes including dendritic polymers, as well as important additives such as plasticizers and flame-retardants, and emerging applications such as molecular magnets and self-repairing polymers. This edition now features ‘click chemistry’ polymerization, silicones, conductive polymers and biomaterials applications such as biodegradable polymers, biomedical devices, drug delivery, and contact lenses.
The nanomaterials chapter is also carefully surveyed, focusing on nomenclature, synthetic techniques, and applications taken from the latest scientific literature. The 2nd edition has been significantly updated to now include nanotoxicity, vapor-phase growth of 0-D nanostructures, and more details regarding synthetic techniques and mechanisms for solution-phase growth of various nanomaterials. Graphene, recognized by the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics, is now also included in this edition.
The last chapter is of paramount importance for the materials community – characterization. From electron microscopy to surface quantitative analysis techniques, and everything in between, this chapter provides a thorough description of modern techniques used to characterize materials. A flowchart is provided at the end of the chapter that will assist the materials scientist in choosing the most suitable technique(s) to characterize a particular material. In addition to comprehensive updates throughout the chapter, a new technique known as atom-probe tomography (APT) has been included in this edition.
This edition continues to build on the promotion of student engagement througheffective student–instructor interactions. At the end of each chapter, a section entitled “Important Materials Applications” is provided, along with open-ended questions and detailed references/bibliography. Appendices are also provided which contain an updated/expanded timeline of major materials developments and the complete Feynman speech “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom”. An expanded collection of materials-related laboratory modules is also included, which now includes the fabrication of porous silicon films, silicon nanowires, and links to experiments related to ferrofluids, metallurgical phase transitions, and the heat treatment of glasses.
Bradley D. Fahlman, Ph.D. Mount Pleasant, Michigan December 2010