Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility Second Edition by CLAYTON R. PAUL.
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1 Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
2 EMC Requirements for Electronic Systems
3 Signal Spectra—the Relationship between the Time Domain and
the Frequency Domain
4 Transmission Lines and Signal Integrity
5 Nonideal Behavior of Components
6 Conducted Emissions and Susceptibility
8 Radiated Emissions and Susceptibility
11 System Design for EMC
Appendix A The Phasor Solution Method
Appendix B The Electromagnetic Field Equations and Waves
Appendix C Computer Codes for Calculating the Per-Unit-Length
(PUL) Parameters and Crosstalk of Multiconductor
Appendix D A SPICE (PSPICE) Tutorial
Preface: This is the second edition of a textbook that was originally published in 1992 and is intended for a university/college course in electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). It has also proved to be very beneficial as a reference for industrial professionals interested in EMC design. The prerequisites are the completion of the basic undergraduate electrical engineering courses in electric circuit analysis, signals and systems, electronics, and electromagnetic fields. The text builds on those basic skills, principles, and concepts and applies them to the design of modern electronic systems so that these systems will operate compatibly with other electronic systems and also comply with various governmental regulations on radiated and conducted electromagnetic emissions. In essence, EMC deals with interference and the prevention of it through the design of electronic systems.
The subject of EMC is rapidly becoming as important a subdiscipline of electrical engineering (EE) as other more traditional subjects such as electric circuit analysis and electronics. One of the first such courses in EMC that was introduced into an EE undergraduate curriculum was organized in the early 1980s at the University of Kentucky by the author. It was taught as a senior technical elective and continues to be taught as an elective course there and at the author’s present institution, Mercer University. The subject is rapidly increasing in importance, due in part to the increasing use and speeds of digital electronics in today’s modern world. It is currently being offered in a large number of electrical engineering curricula in schools in the United States and throughout the world. The number of schools offering an EMC course will no doubt continue to rapidly increase. The reasons for EMC having grown in importance at such a rapid pace are due to (1) the increasing speeds and use of digital electronics in today’s world and (2) the virtual worldwide imposition of governmental limits on the radiated and conducted noise emissions of digital electronic products. Prior to 1979, the United States did not restrict the electromagnetic noise emissions of digital electronic products that were to be sold within its borders. Manufacturers of digital electronic devices voluntarily imposed their own limits in order to produce quality products whose electromagnetic emissions would not cause interference with other electronic devices. In addition, manufacturers tested their products to determine their susceptibility to electromagnetic emissions from other sources so that the product would operate reliably in the intended environment. In 1979 the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) published a law that placed legal limits on the radiated emissions from and the conducted emissions out the device power cord of all digital devices (devices that use a clock of 9 kHz or greater and use “digital techniques”) to be sold in the United States. This transformed what was a voluntary matter into a legal one. This made it illegal to sell a digital device (no matter how innovative the device) in the United States unless its noise emissions were below the limits set by the FCC. Many countries throughout the world, and primarily those of Europe, already had similar such laws in place. This caused a drastic change in how companies producing electronic products design those products. It no longer mattered that the product had some new and revolutionary use or function; if it did not comply with these legal limits, it could not be placed on the market!
Since the original publication of this text in 1992, several significant developments occurred that have dramatically increased the importance of EMC in not only universities but also across the electronics industry. Countries in Europe (which represents a major market for electronics produced in the USA) formed the European Union and imposed even more stringent and pervasive EMC regulations than were in place before the turn of the century. Processing speeds (clock and data speeds) of digital products have increased at a dramatic rate. In the mid 1980s the clock speeds were on the order of tens of megahertz (MHz). Personal computers are now available with clock frequencies over 3 GHz and that cost under $500 U.S. This has dramatically increased the difficulty of complying with the EMC governmental regulations. The combination of lowered costs and higher speeds of digital devices mean that effective EMC design practices are now much more critical in order to avoid unnecessary costs of EMC suppression measures that are added to bring the products into compliance. Frequencies of use even in analog systems are escalating well into the GHz range, and it is difficult to find a product (including washing machines, automobiles, etc.) that doesn’t use digital electronics as a primary factor in that product’s performance. These mandatory governmental requirements to minimize a digital product’s electromagnetic noise emissions and the rapidly decreasing costs and product development schedules of those products mean that all EEs must now be trained in proper EMC design techniques. Electrical engineers that have not been trained in EMC design will be severely handicapped when they enter the workplace.
This second edition has been substantially rewritten and revised to reflect the developments in the field of EMC. Chapters have been repositioned and their content revised. Chapter 1, Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), has remained essentially the same as in the first edition. An important discussion of the concept of an electromagnetic wave has been added to that chapter. Chapter 2, EMC Requirements for Electronic Systems, although retaining its previous place in the outline, has been substantially revised to reflect the rather substantial revisions of the governmental regulatory requirements that have occurred in the United States and throughout the world. Chapter 3, Signal Spectra—the Relationship between the Time Domain and the Frequency Domain, was moved from its previous place as Chapter 7 in the first edition to its present place as Chapter 3. This was done because the author feels that this topic is one of the—if not the—most important topic in EMC, and this repositioning is intended to get the reader to begin thinking in terms of signal spectra early on. Use of SPICE (simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis) [PSPICE (personal computer SPICE)] in computing signal spectra has now been included in that chapter. Chapter 4, Transmission Lines and Signal Integrity, has been significantly revised. A significant revision of this chapter is the inclusion of the topic of signal integrity. Some 10 years ago when this text was originally published, clock and data speeds were in the low MHz range and hence land lengths on printed circuit boards (PCBs) were inconsequential; their electromagnetic effects could generally be ignored. The propagation delays through the gates were on the order of tens of nanoseconds and dominated the delay caused by the signal lands. Now, virtually all lands on PCBs must be treated as transmission lines, or else the product will not function properly. This is a result of the length of the PCB traces becoming significant portions of a wavelength because of the dramatic increase in the spectral content of the digital signals. Matching of these transmission lines is now not an option. Again, use of SPICE (PSPICE) in the analysis of these interconnect leads has been given greater emphasis in this chapter. Chapter 5, Nonideal Behavior of Components, has been moved earlier from its place as Chapter 6 in the previous edition and is retained as a part of the early discussion of important concepts. It has been revised but contains substantially the same content and topic areas.
Chapter 6, Conducted Emissions and Susceptibility, is essentially the same as Chapter 7 of the first edition. In this second edition it appears before the topic of radiated emissions to reflect the author’s feeling of its proper sequence. Chapter 7, Antennas, is essentially the same as Chapter 5 in the first edition. Chapter 8, Radiated Emissions and Susceptibility, is essentially the same as Chapter 8 of the first edition but has been revised. Chapter 9, Crosstalk, has been substantially revised from its version as Chapter 10 of the first edition. The mathematics has been considerably simplified. There are three significant revisions in this chapter. First, the simple inductive –capacitive coupling model for weakly coupled, electrically short lines has been moved earlier in the chapter, and its derivation now is argued on somewhat intuitive grounds to simplify the discussion. Second, the computation of the per-unit-length parameters is shown using static numerical methods (method of moments) in a simple fashion in order to familiarize the reader with the modern numerical methods that are growing in use and importance. FORTRAN programs are described here and in Appendix C that compute these parameters very accurately for ribbon cables, PCB land structures, coupled microstrip lines, and coupled striplines. These FORTRAN codes are contained in a CD that is supplied with this textbook. Third, a FORTRAN program that prepares an exact SPICE (PSPICE) subcircuit model for a coupled transmission line is described, and its use is illustrated throughout the chapter. It is also supplied on that CD. The importance of this is that the reader can now easily investigate crosstalk on complicated (but realistic) transmission lines on PCBs that have realistic loads such as capacitors, inductors, transistors, and logic gates, which complicate a hand analysis. This also introduces the reader to the modern use of computer-aided design (CAD) simulation methods that are increasing in importance and popularity. Chapter 10, Shielding, is essentially the same as Chapter 11 of the first edition.
Chapter 12 on electrostatic discharge in the first edition has been eliminated as a separate chapter in the second edition, but its content has been incorporated into the final chapter, Chapter 11, System Design for EMC (which was the previous Chapter 13 of the first edition). The text of that chapter has been virtually rewritten in both content and organization from its earlier version. It is now organized into five major topic areas: Section 11.1, Changing the Way We Think about Electrical Phenomena; Section 11.2, What Do We Mean by the Term “Ground”?; Section 11.3, Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design; Section 11.4, System Configuration and Design; and Section 11.5, Diagnostic Tools. This was done to cause the reader to focus on the important aspects of EMC design without getting lost in detail. Section 11.5, Diagnostic Tools, is new to the text and reflects the author’s view that it is virtually impossible to design a digital device to pass the regulatory requirements on the first testing. It is crucially important in this age of low product cost and reduced development schedules to be able to determine the exact cause of the noncompliance and to determine how to bring the product into compliance with minimum added cost and minimum impact on the development schedule. The important concept of Dominant Effect is critical to the rapid diagnosis of EMC problems and the demystifying of EMC and is discussed here.
Several appendixes are new to this second edition. Appendix A, The Phasor Solution Method, is a brief review of the important phasor solution of differential equations and electric circuits: their sinusoidal, steady-state solution. This skill is the most important and fundamental skill of an electrical engineer. It permeates all electrical engineering areas, such as circuit analysis, signal analysis, system analysis, electronic circuit analysis, and electromagnetics. Unless the reader has this important skill mastered, very little can be gained or understood from this textbook or any other electrical engineering textbook. Hence this appendix serves as a brief review of this crucial skill. Appendix B, The Electromagnetic Field Equations and Waves, is a brief but sufficient review of the important electromagnetic principles and laws. It was placed in an appendix rather than in the body of the text, as in the first edition, in order to avoid breaks in the flow of the material. Appendix C, Computer Codes for Calculating the Per-Unit-Length Parameters and Crosstalk of Multiconductor Transmission Lines, describes the FORTRAN programs that can be used to model and predict crosstalk of complex (but representative) transmission lines. These are also placed on the CD that is supplied with this textbook. Appendix D, A SPICE (PSPICE) Tutorial, is a brief but sufficient tutorial on the use of the PSPICE program to model and simulate electric circuits.
This edition of the textbook has emphasized a dramatic increase in the use of PSPICE to simulate virtually all areas of EMC analysis. Again, this is in line with the current emphasis on and use of modern CAD tools in EMC. Another significant innovation in this text is the use of worked-out Example Problems and Review Exercises. Detailed worked-out examples are strategically placed after discussion of major concepts to show the reader how to work important EMC problems. These are clearly delineated from the text to enable the reader to focus on these problem-solving skills. In addition, a large number of Review Exercises are included after discussion of each important topic. The exercises are in the form of a simple question, and the answer is given. Hence the reader can quickly check his/her comprehension of the topic immediately after its discussion. Most of the End-ofChapter Problems are new and the answers are given at the end of the problem in brackets [ ], as was the custom in the first edition.
The Author would like to thank Cadence Design Systems, Inc. for allowing John Wiley Interscience to distribute OrCAD and MicroSim software with this book. OrCAD PSPICE version 10 and MicroSim PSPICE version 8 are included in the CD supplied with this textbook. The reader can therefore immediately install the programs on his/her personal computer and begin to perform the simulations in this book.
Many of the author’s colleagues in the EMC industry have had considerable influence on his way of thinking about EMC and have contributed significantly to the author’s ability to produce this text. Of primary mention are the insights gained from and numerous discussions with Mr. Henry Ott, which have significantly impacted the author’s EMC perspective. The author highly recommends Mr. Ott’s Website, http://www.hottconsultants.com. It contains links to the latest revisions of the regulations. But more importantly it contains numerous highly detailed and informative tutorial articles and other references on EMC. The author also owes a significant debt of gratitude for this association with and insights gained from working with colleagues in the EMC group at IBM Information Products Division in Lexington, Kentucky (now Lexmark International) during a sabbatical leave in 1984 and consulting there for some 10 years thereafter. Working with those individuals on significant EMC problems was the primary reason why this text was originally published. Primary among those individuals are Mr. Donald R. Bush, Dr. Keith B. Hardin, and Mr. Stephen G. Parker. The late Mr. Donald R. Bush was also a personal friend of the author and had a profound influence on the author, both personally and professionally, for over 30 years. The author would also like to acknowledge and thank Mr. John Fessler of Lexmark International for his discussions on the latest governmental regualtions.
CLAYTON R. PAUL.
Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility 2nd Edition by CLAYTON R. PAUL pdf.
⏩Author: CLAYTON R. PAUL
⏩Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Inc
⏩Puplication Date: 2006
⏩Size: 12.1 MB
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