Harmonics, Power Systems, and Smart Grids 2nd Edition by Francisco C. De La Rosa.
1. Fundamentals of Harmonic Distortion and Power Quality
Indices in Electric Power Systems
2. Harmonic Sources
3. Standardization of Harmonic Levels
4. Effects of Harmonics on Distribution Systems
5. Harmonic Measurements
6. Harmonic Filtering Techniques
7. Other Methods to Decrease Harmonic Distortion Limits
8. Harmonic Analyses
9. Fundamentals of Power Losses in Harmonic Environments
10. The Smart Grid Concept
11. Harmonics in the Present Smart Grid Setting
12. Harmonics from Latest Innovative Electric Grid Technologies
Preface: This book seeks to provide a comprehensive reference on harmonic current generation, propagation, and control in electrical power networks, including the broadly cited smart grid. Harmonic waveform distortion is one of the most important issues that the electric industry faces today due to the substantial volume of electric power that is converted from alternating current (AC) to other forms of electricity required in multiple applications. It is also a topic of much discussion in technical working groups that issue recommendations and standards for waveform distortion limits. Equipment manufacturers and electric utilities strive to find the right conditions to design and operate power apparatuses that can reliably operate in harmonic environments and, at the same time, meet harmonic emission levels within recommended values.
This book provides a compilation of the most relevant aspects of harmonics in a way that the unfamiliar reader can grasp and use to get up to date with the subject matter and that the experienced reader can use to navigate directly to specific subjects of interest.
An introductory description on the definition of harmonics along with analytical expressions for electrical parameters under nonsinusoidal situations is provided in Chapter 1. This is followed in Chapter 2 by descriptions of the different sources of harmonics that are concerns for the electric industry. Industrial facilities are by far the major producers of harmonic currents. Most industrial processes involve one form or another of power conversion to run processes that use large direct current (DC) motors or variable frequency drives. Others feed large electric furnaces, electric welders, or battery chargers, which are formidable generators of harmonic currents. How harmonic current producers have spread from industrial to commercial and residential facilitiesÐ mostly as a result of the proliferation of personal computers and entertaining devices that require rectified powerÐ is described. Additionally, the use of energy-saving devices, such as electronic ballasts in commercial lighting and interruptible power supplies that provide voltage support during power interruptions, makes the problem even larger.
As this takes place, standards bodies struggle to adapt present regulationson harmonics to levels more in line with realistic scenarios and to avoid compromising the reliable operation of equipment at utilities and customer locations. The most important and widely used industry standards to control harmonic distortion levels are described in Chapter 3.
The effects of harmonics are thoroughly documented in technical literature. They range from accelerated equipment aging to abnormal operation of sensitive processes or protective devices. Chapter 4 summarizes the most relevant effects of harmonics in different situations that equally affect residential, commercial, and industrial customers. A particular effort is devoted to illustrating the effects of harmonics in electrical machines related to pulsating torques that can drive machines into excessive shaft vibration.
Given the extensive dissemination of harmonic sources in the electrical network, monitoring harmonic distortion at the interface between customer and supplier has become essential. Additionally, the dynamics of industrial loads require the characterization of harmonic distortion levels over extended periods. Chapter 5 summarizes the most relevant aspects and industry recommendations to take into account when deciding to undertake the task of characterizing harmonic levels at a given facility.
One of the most effective methods to mitigate the effect of harmonics is the use of passive filters. Chapter 6 provides a detailed description of their operation principle and design. Single-tuned and high-pass filters are included in this endeavor. Simple equations that involve the AC source data, along with the parameters of other important components (particularly the harmonic-generating source), are described. Filter components are determined and tested to meet industry standards’ operation performance. Some practical examples are used to illustrate the application of the different filtering schemes. The Active Filter Concept, which represents a more sophisticated option for harmonic control, is briefly described.
Because of the expenses incurred in providing harmonic filters, particularly but not exclusively at industrial installations, other methods to alleviate the harmonic distortion problem are often applied. Alternative methods, including use of stiffer AC sources, power converters with increased number of pulses, series reactors, and load reconfiguration, are presented in Chapter 7. In Chapter 8, a description of the most relevant elements that play a role in the study of the propagation of harmonic currents in a distribution network is presented. These elements include the AC source, transmission lines, cables, transformers, harmonic filters, power factor, capacitor banks, etc. In dealing with the propagation of harmonic currents in electrical networks, it is very important to recognize the complexity reached when extensive networks are considered. Therefore, some examples are illustrated to show the convenience of using specialized tools in the analysis of complicated networks with multiple harmonic sources. The penetration of harmonic currents in the electrical network that can affect adjacent customers and even reach the substation transformer is also discussed. T
he most important aspects to determine power losses in electrical equipment attributed to harmonic waveform distortion are presented in Chapter 9. This is done with particular emphasis on transformers and rotating machines. Most of the examples presented in this book are based on the author’s experience in industrial applications, for the most part in the petroleum and electric power utility environments.
A useful addition to the revised edition of the book opens with the smart grid concept discussion in Chapter 10, which portrays a state of affairs in the development, testing, and integration of new devices in the electric power grid, intended to become part of the smart grid. The portrayal includes a depiction of the multiple players in this endeavor, but focus is maintained in the increased levels of harmonic distortion expected with the growing amounts of solid electronic devices that the smart grid concept entails.
Chapter 11 describes the characteristic harmonics in the smart grid world, including those from solar and wind power converters and power electronics in FACTS and HVDC technologies. Finally, Chapter 12 concludes the book, touching on harmonics from the latest innovative electric grid technologies, which includes electric vehicles connected to the grid, superconductive fault current limiters, and electric vehicle charging stations.
I hope this book provides a useful contribution in identifying the relevant aspects of a complex phenomenon to better devise harmonic control measures in a variety of applications.
Francisco C. De La Rosa
From The book Cover:
“… allows students and professionals in electrical engineering to have applicable knowledge of the harmonic phenomena in power systems including nonconventional sources of energy. … an excellent reference for those who work in areas such as power quality for its clear concepts and practical examples.”
Professor Horacio Torres-Sanchez, National University of Colombia, Bogotá
Harmonics, Power Systems, and Smart Grids, Second Edition compiles the most relevant aspects of harmonics in a way that the unfamiliar reader can better grasp the subject matter and the experienced reader can directly access specifc subjects of interest. The text begins with a defnition of harmonics, along with analytical expressions for electrical parameters under nonsinusoidal situations, and then
• Discusses important and widely used industry standards to control
harmonic distortion levels
• Describes methods to mitigate the effects of harmonics, detailing the
operation principles and design of passive filters and active filter fundamentals
• Presents alternative methods, such as stiffer AC sources, power converters
with increased number of pulses, series reactors, and load reconfiguration
• Reviews the elements that play a role in the study of the propagation of
harmonic currents in a distribution network
• Explains how to determine power losses in electrical equipment attributed
to harmonic waveform distortion
• Covers harmonics from solar and wind power converters and power
electronics in FACTS and HVDC technologies
• Explores harmonics from electric vehicles connected to the grid, superconductive fault current limiters, and electric vehicle charging stations
Featuring three new chapters, a number of new examples and figures, and updates throughout, Harmonics, Power Systems, and Smart Grids, Second Edition provides a comprehensive reference on harmonic current generation, propagation, and control in electrical power networks, including the broadly cited smart grid.
⏩Author: Francisco C. De La Rosa
⏩Puplisher: CRC Press
⏩Puplication Date: April 20, 2015
⏩Size: 8.70 MB
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