FACTS: Controllers in Power Transmission and Distribution 1st Edition by K. R. Padiyar.
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Preface: Modern power systems are highly complex and are expected to fulfill the growing demands of power wherever required, with acceptable quality and costs. The economic and environmental factors necessitate the location of generation at places away from load centres. The restructuring of power utilities has increased the uncertainties in system operation. The regulatory constraints on the expansion of the transmission network has resulted in reduction of stability margins and increased the risks of cascading outages and blackouts. This problem can be effectively tackled by the introduction of high power electronic controllers for the regulation of power flows and voltages in AC transmission networks. This allows ’flexible’ operation of AC transmission systems whereby the changes can be accommodated easily without stressing the system. Power electronic based systems and other static equipment that provide controllability of power flow and voltage are termed as FACTS Controllers.
It is to be noted that power electronic controllers were first introduced in HVDC transmission for not only regulation of power flow in HVDC links, but also for modulation to improve system stability (both angle and voltage). The technology of thyristor valves and digital controls was initially extended to the development of Static Var Compensator (SVC) for load compensation and voltage regulation in long transmission lines. In 1988,Dr.Narain G. Hingorani introduced the concept of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) by incorporating power electronic controllers to enhance power transfer in existing AC transmission lines, improve voltage regulation and system security without adding new lines. The FACTS controllers can also be used to regulate power flow in critical lines and hence, ease congestion in electrical networks. FACTS does not refer to any single device, but a host of controllers such as SVC, Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC), Static Phase Shifting Transformer (SPST), and newer controllers based on Voltage Source Converters (VSC)-Static synchronous Compensator (STATCOM), Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC), Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC), Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC) etc. The advent of FACTS controllers has already made a major impact on the planning and operation of power delivery systems. The concept of Custom Power introduced by Dr.Hingorani in 1995 has extended the application of FACTS controllers for distribution systems with the objective of improving power quality. An understanding of the working of individual FACTS controllers and issues that affect their operation under various conditions is essential for both students and engineers (in industry) who are interested in the subject. This book aims to provide detailed information for students, researchers, and development and application engineers in industry. It contains comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of the FACTS controllers that have been proposed and developed both for transmission and distribution. It is hoped that this book will complement the excellent book on ”Understanding FACTS-Concepts and Technology of Flexible AC Transmission Systems” by the pioneers, Dr. Narain G. Hingorani and Dr.Laszlo Gyugyi. The present book covers many analytical issues that affect the design of FACTS Controllers, which are of interest to academics and application engineers. It can be used as a text or reference for a course on FACTS Controllers. The author has been working in the area of HVDC and FACTS Controllers over many years. He has taught a course on FACTS for graduate students at Indian Institute of Science and has guided several Masters and PhD students who have worked on various aspects of different FACTS controllers. He has delivered many lectures in short- term intensive courses attended by teachers from engineering colleges and engineers from industry. He is the author of a book on HVDC Power Transmission Systems (published by Wiley Eastern and John Wiley in 1991), which is widely used. Hence, it was natural to attempt this book based on the expertise and experience gained.
The book is organized into 14 chapters and 4 appendices. The first chapter introduces FACTS controllers and their application in transmission and distribution networks in the context of operational problems of modern power systems involving transmission congestion, loop flows, system security and power quality issues. The second chapter reviews the modeling and steady state characteristics of AC transmission lines. It also covers the analysis of how an individual FACTS controller can modify the power flow and voltage profile in a line.
Chapters 3 to 9 cover the various FACTS controllers -SVC, TCSC and GCSC, Static PST, STATCOM, SSSC, UPFC, IPFC, CSC, IPC and other devices such as Fault Current Limiter (FCL), Thyristor Controlled Braking Resistor (TCBR), NGH Damping and Thyristor Controlled Voltage Limiter (TCVL). In each case, the function of the FACTS device is explained with the description of power circuit, associated controllers and operating modes. The modeling of each FACTS Controller is derived from first principles and simplifications where appropriate are discussed. The applications and control interactions involving Subsynchronous Resonance (SSR), electromagnetic interactions and harmonic interactions are also discussed in some detail wherever required.
A major function of a FACTS Controller is power oscillation damping involving low frequency oscillations that threaten system security under peak power flow conditions. Chapter 10 covers the analysis of this problem with solutions involving control strategies for voltage and power modulation. Illustrative examples are included to explain the techniques.
Another important control function is the improvement of transient stability using bang-bang control technique. This is also termed as discrete control. The analysis and control strategies for this function are discussed in detail in chapter 11 with the help of case studies.
Chapter 12 introduces the power quality issues involving voltage fluctuations, flicker, sags and swells, momentary interruptions, unbalance and harmonics. The measures for power quality are described and introduction to Custom Power Devices (CPD) is presented. Chapter 13 deals with load compensation and application of distribution STATCOM (DSTATCOM) for fast voltage regulation or reactive power compensation, balancing of source currents and active filtering. Chapter 14 covers series power quality conditioner involving dynamic voltage restoration and harmonic isolation. The Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC), which includes both shunt and series compensators is also described. In all cases considered, the operation of the individual device is described along with modeling, control algorithms and simulation of the system to evaluate the performance. The case studies are presented to illustrate the analysis.
The Appendix A describes the modeling of synchronous machines for both stability and transient analysis. The mechanical system of rotor masses and shafts is also modeled. The major Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) techniques such as Sine PWM and Space Vector modulation are discussed in Appendix B. The per unit system for a STATCOM is discussed in Appendix C. The Appendix D lists the abbreviations used.
It is assumed that the reader has an exposure to elementary power electronics, power systems and basic control theory. Hence, topics on power semiconductor devices and converters have been deliberately left out. Still, the book contains more material than what can be covered in a one-semester course.
2 AC Transmission Line and Reactive Power Compensation
3 Static Var Compensator
4 Thyristor and GTO Controlled Series Capacitor
5 Static Phase Shifting Transformer
6 Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM)
7 Static Synchronous Series Compensator
8 Unif]ed Power Flow Controller and other Multi-Converter
9 Interphase Power Controller and other FACTS Devices
10 Power Oscillation Damping
11 Improvement of Transient Stability
12 Power Quality and Introduction to Custom Power Devices
13 Load Compensation and Distribution STATCOM
14 Dynamic Voltage Restorer and Unified Power Quality Conditioner
FACTS: Controllers in Power Transmission and Distribution 1st Edition by K. R. Padiyar pdf.
⏩Author: K. R. Padiyar
⏩Publisher: Anshan Publishers; 1 edition (August 15, 2009)
⏩Puplication Date: August 15, 2009
⏩Size: 4.99 MB
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