Engine Testing Theory and Practice Third edition by A.J. Martyr, M.A. Plint.
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Units and conversion factors
1 Test facility specification, system integration and project organization
2 The test cell as a thermodynamic system
3 Vibration and noise
4 Test cell and control room design: an overall view
5 Ventilation and air conditioning
6 Test cell cooling water and exhaust gas systems
7 Fuel and oil storage, supply and treatment
8 Dynamometers and the measurement of torque
9 Coupling the engine to the dynamometer
10 Electrical design considerations
11 Test cell control and data acquisition
12 Measurement of fuel, combustion air and oil consumption
13 Thermal efficiency, measurement of heat and mechanical losses
14 The combustion process and combustion analysis
15 The test department organization, health and safety management, risk
assessment correlation of results and design of experiments
16 Exhaust emissions
17 Tribology, fuel and lubrication testing
18 Chassis or rolling road dynamometers
19 Data collection, handling, post-test processing, engine calibration and mapping
20 The pursuit and definition of accuracy: statistical analysis of test results
Preface: The preface of this book is probably the least read section of all; however, it is the only part in which I can pay tribute to my friend and co-author of the first two editions, Dr Michael Plint, who died suddenly in November 1998, only four days after the publication of the second edition.
All the work done by Michael in the previous editions has stood up to the scrutiny of our readers and my own subsequent experience. In this edition, I have attempted to bring our work up to date by revising the content to cover the changing legislation, techniques and some of the new tools of our industry. In a new Chapter 1, I have also sought to suggest some good practices, based on my own 40 years of experience, aimed at minimizing the problems of project organization that are faced by all parties involved in the specification, modification, building and commissioning of engine test laboratories.
The product of an engine test facility is data and byproduct is the experience gained by the staff and hopefully retained by the company. These data have to be relevant to the experiments being run, and every component of the test facility has to play its part, within an integrated whole, in ensuring that the test data are as valid and uncorrupted as possible, within the sensible limits of the facility’s role. It was our intention when producing the first edition to create an eclectic source of information that would assist any engineer faced with the many design and operational problems of both engine testing and engine test facilities. In the intervening years, the problems have become more difficult as the nature of the engine control has changed significantly, while the time and legislative pressures have increased. However, it is the laws of physics that rule supreme in our world and they can continue to cause problems in areas outside the specialization of many individual readers. I hope that this third edition helps the readers involved in some aspect of engine testing to gain a holistic view of the whole interactive package that makes up a test facility and to avoid, or solve, some of the problems that they may meet in our industry.
Having spoken to a number of readers of the two proceeding editions of this book I have reorganized the contents of most of the chapters in order to reflect the way in which the book is used.
Writing this edition has, at times, been a lonely and wearisome task that would not have been completed without the support of my wife Diana and my friends. Many people have assisted me with their expert advice in the task of writing this third edition. I have to thank all my present AVL colleagues in the UK and Austria, particularly Stuart Brown, David Moore and Colin Freeman who have shared many of my experiences in the test industry over the last 20 years, also Dave Rogers, Craig Andrews, Hans Erlach and finally Gerhard Müller for his invaluable help with the complexities of electrical distribution circuits.
22 September 2006
Introduction: Over the working lifetime of the authors the subject of internal engine development and testing has changed, from being predominantly within the remit of mechanical engineers, into a task that is well beyond the remit of any one discipline that requires a team of specialists covering, in addition to mechanical engineering, electronics, power electrics, acoustics, software, computer sciences and chemical analysis, all supported by expertise in building services and diverse legislation.
It follows that the engineer concerned with any aspect of engine testing, be it fundamental research, development, performance monitoring or routine production testing, must have at his fingertips a wide and ever-broadening range of knowledge and skills.
A particular problem he must face is that, while he is required to master ever more advanced experimental techniques – such areas as emissions analysis and engine calibration come to mind – he cannot afford to neglect any of the more traditional aspects of the subject. Such basic matters as the mounting of the engine, coupling it to the dynamometer and leading away the exhaust gases can give rise to intractable problems, misleading results and even on occasion to disastrous accidents. More than one engineer has been killed as a result of faulty installation of engines on test beds.
The sheer range of machines covered by the general term internal combustion engine broadens the range of necessary skills. At one extreme we may be concerned with an engine for a chain saw, a single cylinder of perhaps 50 c.c. capacity running at 15 000 rev/min on gasoline, with a running life of a few hours. Then we have the vast number of passenger vehicle engines, four, six or eight cylinder, capacities ranging from one litre to six, expected to develop full torque over speeds ranging from perhaps 1500 rev/min up to 7000 rev/min (the upper limit rising continually), and with an expected life of perhaps 6000 hours. The motor-sport industry continues to push the limits of both engine and test plant design with engines revving at speeds approaching 20 000 r.p.m. and, in rally cars, engine control systems having to cope with cars leaving the ground, then requiring full power when they land. At the other extreme is the cathedral type marine engine, a machine perhaps 10 m tall and weighing 1000 tonnes, running on the worst type of residual fuel, and expected to go on turning at 70 rev/min for more than 50 000 hours.
The purpose of this book is to bring together the information on both the theory and practice of engine testing that any engineer responsible for work of this kind must have available. It is naturally not possible, in a volume of manageable size, to give all the information that may be required in the pursuit of specialized lines of development, but it is the intention of the authors to make readers aware of the many tasks they may face and to give advice based on experience; a range of references for more advanced study has been included.
Throughout the book accuracy will be a recurring theme. The purpose of engine testing is to produce information, and inaccurate information can be useless or worse. A feeling for accuracy is the most difficult and subtle of all the skills required of the test engineer. Chapter 19, dealing with this subject, is perhaps the most important in the book and the first that should be read.
Experience in the collaboration with architects and structural engineers is particularly necessary for engineers involved in test facility design. These professions follow design conventions and even draughting practices that differ from those of the mechanical engineer. To give an example, the test cell designer may specify a strong floor on which to bolt down engines and dynamometers that has an accuracy approaching that of a surface plate. To the structural engineer this will be a startling concept, not easily achieved.
The internal combustion engine is perhaps the best mechanical device available for introducing the engineering student to the practical aspects of engineering. An engine is a comparatively complicated machine, sometimes noisy and alarming in its behaviour and capable of presenting many puzzling problems and mystifying faults. A few hours spent in the engine testing laboratory are perhaps the best possible introduction to the real world of engineering, which is remote from the world of the lecture theatre and the computer simulation in which, inevitably, the student spends much of his time.
While it contains some material only of interest to the practising test engineer, much of this book is equally suitable as a student text, and this purpose has been kept very much in mind by the authors. In response to the author’s recent experience, the third edition has a new Chapter 1 dedicated to the problems involved in specifying and managing a test facility build project.
A note of warning: the general management of engine tests:
What may be regarded as traditional internal combustion engines had in general very simple control systems. The spark ignition engine was fitted with a carburettor controlled by a single lever, the position of which, together with the resisting torque applied to the crankshaft, set all the parameters of engine operation. Similarly, the performance of a diesel engine was dictated by the position of the fuel pump rack, either controlled directly or by a relatively simple speed governor.
The advent of engine control units (ECUs) containing ever more complex maps and taking signals from multiple vehicle transducers has entirely changed the situation. The ECU monitors many aspects of powertrain performance and makes continuous adjustments. The effect of this is effectively to take the control of the test conditions out of the hands of the engineer conducting the test. Factors entirely extraneous to the investigation in hand may thus come into play The introduction of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) under the control of the ECU is a typical example. The only way open to the test engineer to regain control of his test is to devise means of bypassing the ECU, either mechanically or by intervention in the programming of the control unit.
A note on references and further information:
It would clearly not be possible to give all the information necessary for the practice of engine testing and the design of test facilities in a book of this length. References suitable for further study are given at the end of most chapters. These are of two different kinds:
• a selection of fundamental texts or key papers
• relevant British Standards and other reference standard specifications. The default source of many students is now the world wide web which contains vast quantities of information related to engines and engine testing, much of which is written by and for the automotive after-market where a rigorous approach to experimental accuracy is not always evident; for this reason and due to the transient nature of many websites, there are very few web-based references.
Engine Testing: Theory and Practice 3rd Edition by A.J. Martyr, M.A. Plint pdf.
⏩Authors: A.J. Martyr, M.A. Plint
⏩Puplication Date: April 8, 2011
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