Electricity and Magnetism Third Edition by Edward M. Purcell, David J. Morin.
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ELECTROSTATICS: CHARGES AND FIELDS
THE ELECTRIC POTENTIAL
ELECTRIC FIELDS AROUND CONDUCTORS
THE FIELDS OF MOVING CHARGES
THE MAGNETIC FIELD
ALTERNATING-CURRENT CIRCUITS 3
MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC
ELECTRIC FIELDS IN MATTER
MAGNETIC FIELDS IN MATTER
SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS
Preface to the third edition of Volume 2:
For 50 years, physics students have enjoyed learning about electricity and magnetism through the first two editions of this book. The purpose of the present edition is to bring certain things up to date and to add new material, in the hopes that the trend will continue. The main changes from the second edition are (1) the conversion from Gaussian units to SI units, and (2) the addition of many solved problems and examples.
The first of these changes is due to the fact that the vast majority of courses on electricity and magnetism are now taught in SI units. The second edition fell out of print at one point, and it was hard to watch such a wonderful book fade away because it wasn’t compatible with the way the subject is presently taught. Of course, there are differing opinions as to which system of units is “better” for an introductory course. But this issue is moot, given the reality of these courses.
For students interested in working with Gaussian units, or for instructors who want their students to gain exposure to both systems, I have created a number of appendices that should be helpful. Appendix A discusses the differences between the SI and Gaussian systems. Appendix C derives the conversion factors between the corresponding units in the two systems. Appendix D explains how to convert formulas from SI to Gaussian; it then lists, side by side, the SI and Gaussian expressions for every important result in the book. A little time spent looking at this appendix will make it clear how to convert formulas from one system to the other.
The second main change in the book is the addition of many solved problems, and also many new examples in the text. Each chapter ends with “problems” and “exercises.” The solutions to the “problems” are located in Chapter 12. The only official difference between the problems.
and exercises is that the problems have solutions included, whereas the exercises do not. (A separate solutions manual for the exercises is available to instructors.) In practice, however, one difference is that some of the more theorem-ish results are presented in the problems, so that students can use these results in other problems/exercises. Some advice on using the solutions to the problems: problems (and exercises) are given a (very subjective) difficulty rating from 1 star to 4 stars. If you are having trouble solving a problem, it is critical that you don’t look at the solution too soon. Brood over it for a while. If you do finally look at the solution, don’t just read it through. Instead, cover it up with a piece of paper and read one line at a time until you reach a hint to get you started. Then set the book aside and work things out for real.
That’s the only way it will sink in. It’s quite astonishing how unhelpful it is simply to read a solution. You’d think it would do some good, but in fact it is completely ineffective in raising your understanding to the next level. Of course, a careful reading of the text, including perhaps a few problem solutions, is necessary to get the basics down. But if Level 1 is understanding the basic concepts, and Level 2 is being able to apply those concepts, then you can read and read until the cows come home, and you’ll never get past Level 1.
The overall structure of the text is essentially the same as in the second edition, although a few new sections have been added. Section 2.7 introduces dipoles. The more formal treatment of dipoles, along with their applications, remains in place in Chapter 10. But because the fundamentals of dipoles can be understood using only the concepts developed in Chapters 1 and 2, it seems appropriate to cover this subject earlier in the book. Section 8.3 introduces the important technique of solving differential equations by forming complex solutions and then taking the real part. Section 9.6.2 deals with the Poynting vector, which opens up the door to some very cool problems.
Each chapter concludes with a list of “everyday” applications of electricity and magnetism. The discussions are brief. The main purpose of these sections is to present a list of fun topics that deserve further investigation. You can carry onward with some combination of books/ internet/people/pondering. There is effectively an infinite amount of information out there (see the references at the beginning of Section 1.16 for some starting points), so my goal in these sections is simply to provide a springboard for further study.
The intertwined nature of electricity, magnetism, and relativity is discussed in detail in Chapter 5. Many students find this material highly illuminating, although some find it a bit difficult. (However, these two groups are by no means mutually exclusive!) For instructors who wish to take a less theoretical route, it is possible to skip directly from Chapter 4 to Chapter 6, with only a brief mention of the main result from Chapter 5, namely the magnetic field due to a straight current-carrying wire.
The use of non-Cartesian coordinates (cylindrical, spherical) is more prominent in the present edition. For setups possessing certain symmetries, a wisely chosen system of coordinates can greatly simplify the calculations. Appendix F gives a review of the various vector operators in the different systems.
Compared with the second edition, the level of difficulty of the present edition is slightly higher, due to a number of hefty problems that have been added. If you are looking for an extra challenge, these problems should keep you on your toes. However, if these are ignored (which they certainly can be, in any standard course using this book), then the level of difficulty is roughly the same.
I am grateful to all the students who used a draft version of this book and provided feedback. Their input has been invaluable. I would also like to thank Jacob Barandes for many illuminating discussions of the more subtle topics in the book. Paul Horowitz helped get the project off the ground and has been an endless supplier of cool facts. It was a pleasure brainstorming with Andrew Milewski, who offered many ideas for clever new problems. Howard Georgi and Wolfgang Rueckner provided much-appreciated sounding boards and sanity checks. Takuya Kitagawa carefully read through a draft version and offered many helpful suggestions. Other friends and colleagues whose input I am grateful for are: Allen Crockett, David Derbes, John Doyle, Gary Feldman, Melissa Franklin, Jerome Fung, Jene Golovchenko, Doug Goodale, Robert Hart, Tom Hayes, Peter Hedman, Jennifer Hoffman, Charlie Holbrow, Gareth Kafka, Alan Levine, Aneesh Manohar, Kirk McDonald, Masahiro Morii, Lev Okun, Joon Pahk, Dave Patterson, Mara Prentiss, Dennis Purcell, Frank Purcell, Daniel Rosenberg, Emily Russell, Roy Shwitters, Nils Sorensen, Josh Winn, and Amir Yacoby.
I would also like to thank the editorial and production group at Cambridge University Press for their professional work in transforming the second edition of this book into the present one. It has been a pleasure working with Lindsay Barnes, Simon Capelin, Irene Pizzie, Charlotte Thomas, and Ali Woollatt.
Despite careful editing, there is zero probability that this book is error free. A great deal of new material has been added, and errors have undoubtedly crept in. If anything looks amiss, please check the webpage www.cambridge.org/Purcell-Morin for a list of typos, updates, etc. And please let me know if you discover something that isn’t already posted. Suggestions are always welcome.
Preface to the second edition of Volume 2:
This revision of “Electricity and Magnetism,” Volume 2 of the Berkeley Physics Course, has been made with three broad aims in mind. First, I have tried to make the text clearer at many points. In years of use teachers and students have found innumerable places where a simplification or reorganization of an explanation could make it easier to follow. Doubtless some opportunities for such improvements have still been missed; not too many, I hope.
A second aim was to make the book practically independent of its companion volumes in the Berkeley Physics Course. As originally conceived it was bracketed between Volume I, which provided the needed special relativity, and Volume 3, “Waves and Oscillations,” to which was allocated the topic of electromagnetic waves. As it has turned out, Volume 2 has been rather widely used alone. In recognition of that I have made certain changes and additions. A concise review of the relations of special relativity is included as Appendix A. Some previous introduction to relativity is still assumed. The review provides a handy reference and summary for the ideas and formulas we need to understand the fields of moving charges and their transformation from one frame to another.
The development of Maxwell’s equations for the vacuum has been transferred from the heavily loaded Chapter 7 (on induction) to a new Chapter 9, where it leads naturally into an elementary treatment of plane electromagnetic waves, both running and standing. The propagation of a wave in a dielectric medium can then be treated in Chapter 10 on Electric Fields in Matter. A third need, to modernize the treatment of certain topics, was most urgent in the chapter on electrical conduction. A substantially rewritten Chapter 4 now includes a section on the physics of homogeneous semiconductors, including doped semiconductors. Devices are not included, not even a rectifying junction, but what is said about bands, and donors and acceptors, could serve as starting point for development of such topics by the instructor. Thanks to solid-state electronics the physics of the voltaic cell has become even more relevant to daily life as the number of batteries in use approaches in order of magnitude the world’s population. In the first edition of this book I unwisely chose as the example of an electrolytic cell the one cell—the Weston standard cell—which advances in physics were soon to render utterly obsolete.
That section has been replaced by an analysis, with new diagrams, of the lead-acid storage battery—ancient, ubiquitous, and far from obsolete. One would hardly have expected that, in the revision of an elementary text in classical electromagnetism, attention would have to be paid to new developments in particle physics. But that is the case for two questions that were discussed in the first edition, the significance of charge quantization, and the apparent absence of magnetic monopoles. Observation of proton decay would profoundly affect our view of the first question. Assiduous searches for that, and also for magnetic monopoles, have at this writing yielded no confirmed events, but the possibility of such fundamental discoveries remains open.
Three special topics, optional extensions of the text, are introduced in short appendixes: Appendix B: Radiation by an Accelerated Charge; Appendix C: Superconductivity; and Appendix D: Magnetic Resonance. Our primary system of units remains the Gaussian CGS system. The SI units, ampere, coulomb, volt, ohm, and tesla are also introduced in the text and used in many of the problems. Major formulas are repeated in their SI formulation with explicit directions about units and conversion factors. The charts inside the back cover summarize the basic relations in both systems of units. A special chart in Chapter 11 reviews, in both systems, the relations involving magnetic polarization. The student is not expected, or encouraged, to memorize conversion factors, though some may become more or less familiar through use, but to look them up whenever needed. There is no objection to a “mixed” unit like the ohmcm, still often used for resistivity, providing its meaning is perfectly clear. The definition of the meter in terms of an assigned value for the speed of light, which has just become official, simplifies the exact relations among the units, as briefly explained in Appendix E.
There are some 300 problems, more than half of them new. It is not possible to thank individually all the teachers and students who have made good suggestions for changes and corrections. I fear that some will be disappointed to find that their suggestions have not been followed quite as they intended. That the net result is a substantial improvement I hope most readers familiar with the first edition will agree.
Mistakes both old and new will surely be found. Communications pointing them out will be gratefully received. It is a pleasure to thank Olive S. Rand for her patient and skillful
assistance in the production of the manuscript.
Edward M. Purcell
Preface to the first edition of Volume 2:
The subject of this volume of the Berkeley Physics Course is electricity and magnetism. The sequence of topics, in rough outline, is not unusual: electrostatics; steady currents; magnetic field; electromagnetic induction; electric and magnetic polarization in matter. However, our approach is different from the traditional one. The difference is most conspicuous in Chaps. 5 and 6 where, building on the work of Vol. I, we treat the electric and magnetic fields of moving charges as manifestations of relativity and the invariance of electric charge. This approach focuses attention on some fundamental questions, such as: charge conservation, charge invariance, the meaning of field. The only formal apparatus of special relativity that is really necessary is the Lorentz transformation of coordinates and the velocity-addition formula. It is essential, though, that the student bring to this part of the course some of the ideas and attitudes Vol. I sought to develop—among them a readiness to look at things from different frames of reference, an appreciation of invariance, and a respect for symmetry arguments. We make much use also, in Vol. II, of arguments based on superposition.
Our approach to electric and magnetic phenomena in matter is primarily “microscopic,” with emphasis on the nature of atomic and molecular dipoles, both electric and magnetic. Electric conduction, also, is described microscopically in the terms of a Drude-Lorentz model. Naturally some questions have to be left open until the student takes up quantum physics in Vol. IV. But we freely talk in a matter-of-fact way about molecules and atoms as electrical structures with size, shape, and stiffness, about electron orbits, and spin. We try to treat carefully a question that is sometimes avoided and sometimes beclouded in introductory texts, the meaning of the macroscopic fields E and B inside a material.
In Vol. II, the student’s mathematical equipment is extended by adding some tools of the vector calculus—gradient, divergence, curl, and the Laplacian. These concepts are developed as needed in the early chapters.
In its preliminary versions, Vol. II has been used in several classes at the University of California. It has benefited from criticism by many people connected with the Berkeley Course, especially from contributions by E. D. Commins and F. S. Crawford, Jr., who taught the first classes to use the text. They and their students discovered numerous places where clarification, or something more drastic, was needed; many of the revisions were based on their suggestions. Students’ criticisms of the last preliminary version were collected by Robert Goren, who also helped to organize the problems. Valuable criticism has come also from J. D.
Gavenda, who used the preliminary version at the University of Texas, and from E. F. Taylor, of Wesleyan University. Ideas were contributed by Allan Kaufman at an early stage of the writing. A. Felzer worked through most of the first draft as our first “test student.”
The development of this approach to electricity and magnetism was encouraged, not only by our original Course Committee, but by colleagues active in a rather parallel development of new course material at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Among the latter, J. R. Tessman, of the MIT Science Teaching Center and Tufts University, was especially helpful and influential in the early formulation of the strategy. He has used the preliminary version in class, at MIT, and his critical reading of the entire text has resulted in many further changes and corrections. Publication of the preliminary version, with its successive revisions, was supervised by Mrs. Mary R. Maloney. Mrs. Lila Lowell typed most of the manuscript. The illustrations were put into final form by Felix Cooper.
The author of this volume remains deeply grateful to his friends in Berkeley, and most of all to Charles Kittel, for the stimulation and constant encouragement that have made the long task enjoyable.
Edward M. Purcell
Electricity and Magnetism 3rd Edition by Edward M. Purcell, David J. Morin pdf.
⏩Authors: Edward M. Purcell, David J. Morin
⏩Publisher: Cambridge University Press; 3 edition (January 21, 2013)
⏩Puplication Date: January 21, 2013
⏩Size: 3.63 MB
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