Designing Control Loops for Linear and Switching Power Supplies: A Tutorial Guide 1st Edition by Christophe Basso.
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CHAPTER 1. Basics of Loop Control
CHAPTER 2. Transfer Functions
CHAPTER 3. Stability Criteria of a Control System
CHAPTER 4. Compensation
CHAPTER 5. Operational Amplifiers-Based Compensators
CHAPTER 6. Operational Transconductance Amplifier–Based Compensators
CHAPTER 7. TL431-Based Compensators
CHAPTER 8. Shunt Regulator–Based Compensators
CHAPTER 9. Measurements and Design Example
In his previous book, Switch-Mode Power Supplies: Spice Simulations and Practical Designs, Christophe Basso gave valuable, numerous, and detailed explanations of converter topologies and PFC circuits by way of practical circuit designs. Although modeling and feedback control were well explained and utilized in that book, the emphasis was on SPICE simulations.
In this book, Christophe has delved deep into understanding and analyzing specific control circuits used with power converters. He has examined in detail the performance of converters ranging from dynamic load response and stability to line rejection for various controllers, including some unconventional ones for educational purposes to emphasize some of the subtle aspects of feedback control methods. He has derived numerous analytical results to design a compensator that achieves a particular type of performance goal or stability criterion. In addition to the rigors of control theoretic aspects of this book, I was pleased to see the analysis of converter circuits being carried out using fast analytic circuit techniques with answers in lowentropy form very much in the spirit of Dr. R. D. Middlebrook. If design is the reverse of analysis, Middlebrook would say, then the only kind of analysis worth doing is design-oriented analysis, which yields low-entropy expressions. Christophe has taken this to heart and done a very fine job with it. Such a book is necessary because of the continued isolation and demise of the field of analog electronics of which power converter design is part. Control theory books abound, whereas analog electronic textbooks are increasingly becoming less adequate and cookbook like. For the new graduate in electrical engineering who wants to work in the field of power electronics, the necessary knowledge to get started is diffused and rather difficult to consolidate.
Good sources exist to teach one-week courses to practicing engineers, but these assume some working knowledge or experience with power converters. This book in my opinion fills the gap between control theory and converter design rigorously. Also, that such a book is necessary in my opinion is based on my experience, albeit limited, with a few control problems I have had to work on in addition to designing power converters full time. I have seen control systems or rather control schemes that are far too elaborate and unnecessary for stabilizing a platform or regulating the temperature of a laser. Their performance, often marginal, could have been tremendously improved by designing a far simpler feedback control circuit if only the designer understood the equivalent circuit model of the transducer in the first place. Christophe has done an excellent job in exposing the concept of modeling and rigorously compensating converter circuits. It is a book that I recommend to all power electronics engineers who, every once in a while, may have to tackle a control problem for a device that is not a power converter.
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Preface: When I started this book in January 2009, I had the intention to write a quick booklet exclusively covering compensator structures. The idea germinated as I realized that most of the available documents covered compensator examples implementing operational amplifiers. This is the way I learned how to stabilize a loop at university in the eighties. Later, as an engineer, I wanted to put my knowledge at work with a TL431 or a transconductance amplifier to which an optocoupler was hooked. As you can imagine, the connections were missing between my school books and the practical circuit I was working on.
Literature does not abound on the subject of compensator structures, so I had the choice to either plunge into analytical analysis or start tweaking the circuit through trial and error. Obviously, the second approach was wrong, but when time pressure becomes an unbearable situation, I understand that engineers have no other alternative for their ongoing design. I felt there was a gap to fill in the technical literature to show how compensation theory could apply to electronic circuits different than op amps. On the run, I wrote Chapters 5, 6, 7, and 8. Then, I decided to write a little about loop control theory, something engineers could use to refresh their memory on the topic. As I wrote Chapter 1, I discovered that most of the theory I knew on the subject was not really what I had been taught at school. In fact, when I graduated from Montpellier University (in France, not Maine!) and tried to apply that fresh knowledge to a project, I was stuck: I could not bridge the stuff I knew to what I was asked to do. My teachers talked about PID coefficients, and I had to place poles and zeros.
I want this book to be the companion you look at when you need to stabilize a power converter. For that purpose, I have tried to balance the useful theory—you do not need to know everything in the field of loop control to be a good engineer—and the necessity to make it work on real projects. In the nine chapters I wrote, Chap ter 1 starts with generalities on the subject. If you are a beginner, you must read it. Chapter 2 introduces transfer functions and the formalism to write them correctly. Fast analytical techniques are used throughout this chapter, and I encourage you to dig further into the subject. Chapter 3 is an important part of the book, as it details the stability criteria to build rugged control systems. Back to my university time, I had been told to maintain the phase margin to at least 45° and that was it, with no further explanations or origins of this number. There is nothing new here, but I have derived the equations so you can link phase margin numbers and the expected closed-loop transient performance. The same applies to the crossover frequency that you will no longer arbitrarily select. Chapter 4 explains compensation basics, starting with the PID blocks and expanding to what you will deal with: poles and zeros placement. Then I introduce several compensation methods, including output impedance shaping for high-speed dc-dc converters. The next chapters, 5, 6, 7, and 8, teach you how to compensate your converter with an op amp, a TL431, a transimpedance amplifier, or a shunt regulator. This is the strength of this book: I strived to exhaustively cover all the possible configurations, with and without optocoupler, regardless of the active compensation element. You will even find TL431 internals secrets that are not often disclosed in data-sheets or application notes. Finally, Chapter 9 closes the subject with measurement methods and design examples.
In the text, I will bring you to the important matter being examined but will suddenly digress to a mathematical tool needed for understanding. This is my writing style. A lot of books simply assume you know the concerned technique and continue the explanation, leaving the reader with a fragmented knowledge. I have tried to avoid this situation and it is the raison d’être of the appendixes at the end of some of the chapters.
In this book, I have derived more than 1,550 equations in three years. Despite all the reviewers’ care, it is impossible to have trapped all the typos, missing signs, or wrong numerical results that could have escaped my attention. I sincerely apologize in advance: I know the frustration, as a reader, when you discover errors in a book you want to trust. To help improve the content, I would like you to kindly report the mistake you spot while reading and I will maintain an errata list in my webpage with credit given to the discoverer. It worked very well for the previous book and helped to maintain analytical integrity. Thank you in advance for your kind help. Please send comments to [email protected].
As a conclusion, I have spent three great years writing this book. I learned a lot when tackling some of the subjects. A few of them were tough, and I confess there was highs and lows. But the final content confirms that I was on the right path. I hope your comments will acknowledge that point. Above all, I hope you often come back to this companion book while fulfilling your engineering tasks. Happy reading to you all!
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Designing Control Loops for Linear and Switching Power Supplies: A Tutorial Guide 1st Edition by Christophe Basso pdf.
⏩Author: Christophe Basso
⏩Publisher: Artech House
⏩Puplication date: October 1, 2012
⏩Size: 32 MB
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