Chemical Reactor Design, Optimization, and Scaleup by E. Bruce Nauman pdf download

Chemical Reactor Design, Optimization, and Scaleup by E. Bruce Nauman.

Chemical Reactor Design, Optimization, and Scaleup by E. Bruce Nauman

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Material and energy balances are the heart of chemical engineering. Combine them with chemical kinetics and they are the heart of chemical reaction engineering. Add transport phenomena and you have the intellectual basis for chemical reactor design. This chapter begins the study of chemical reactor design by combining material balances with kinetic expressions for elementary chemical reactions. The resulting equations are then solved for several simple but important types of chemical reactors. More complicated reactions and more complicated reactors are treated in subsequent chapters, but the real core of chemical reactor design is here in Chapter 1. Master it, and the rest will be easy.

Chapter 1 treated single, elementary reactions in ideal reactors. Chapter 2 broadens the kinetics to include multiple and nonelementary reactions. Attention is restricted to batch reactors, but the method for formulating the kinetics of complex reactions will also be used for the flow reactors of Chapters 3 and 4 and for the nonisothermal reactors of Chapter 5. The most important characteristic of an ideal batch reactor is that the contents are perfectly mixed. Corresponding to this assumption, the component balances are ordinary differential equations. The reactor operates at constant mass between filling and discharge steps that are assumed to be fast compared with reaction half-lives and the batch reaction times. Chapter 1 made the further assumption of constant mass density, so that the working volume of the reactor was constant, but Chapter 2 relaxes this assumption.
Chemical Reaction and Reactor Design 1st Edition by Hiroo Tominaga, Masakazu Tamaki pdf.

Chapter 2 developed a methodology for treating multiple and complex reactions in batch reactors. The methodology is now applied to piston flow reactors. Chapter 3 also generalizes the design equations for piston flow beyond the simple case of constant density and constant velocity. The key assumption of piston flow remains intact: there must be complete mixing in the direction perpendicular to flow and no mixing in the direction of flow. The fluid density and reactor cross section are allowed to vary. The pressure drop in the reactor is calculated. Transpiration is briefly considered. Scaleup and scaledown techniques for tubular reactors are developed in some detail.

Chapter 2 treated multiple and complex reactions in an ideal batch reactor. The reactor was ideal in the sense that mixing was assumed to be instantaneous and complete throughout the vessel. Real batch reactors will approximate ideal behavior when the characteristic time for mixing is short compared with the reaction half-life. Industrial batch reactors have inlet and outlet ports and an agitation system. The same hardware can be converted to continuous operation. To do this, just feed and discharge continuously. If the reactor is well mixed in the batch mode, it is likely to remain so in the continuous mode, as least for the same reaction. The assumption of instantaneous and perfect mixing remains a reasonable approximation, but the batch reactor has become a continuousflow stirred tank.

This chapter develops the techniques needed to analyze multiple and complex reactions in stirred tank reactors. Physical properties may be variable. Also treated is the common industrial practice of using reactor combinations, such as a stirred tank in series with a tubular reactor, to accomplish the overall reaction.

This chapter treats the effects of temperature on the three types of ideal reactors: batch, piston flow, and continuous-flow stirred tank. Three major questions in reactor design are addressed. What is the optimal temperature for a reaction? How can this temperature be achieved or at least approximated in practice? How can results from the laboratory or pilot plant be scaled up?

The goal of this chapter is to provide semirealistic design and optimization exercises. Design is a creative endeavor that combines elements of art and science. It is hoped that the examples presented here will provide some appreciation of the creative process.

This chapter also introduces several optimization techniques. The emphasis is on robustness and ease of use rather than computational efficiency.

Chapter 7 has two goals. The first is to show how reaction rate expressions, R (a, b, … , T ), are obtained from experimental data. The second is to review the thermodynamic underpinnings for calculating reaction equilibria, heats of reactions and heat capacities needed for the rigorous design of chemical reactors.

Chapters 8 and 9 discuss design techniques for real tubular reactors. By ‘‘real,’’ we mean reactors for which the convenient approximation of piston flow is so inaccurate that a more realistic model must be developed. By ‘‘tubular,’’ we mean reactors in which there is a predominant direction of flow and a reasonably high aspect ratio, characterized by a length-to-diameter ratio, L/dt, of 8 or more, or its equivalent, an L/R ratio of 16 or more. Practical designs include straight and coiled tubes, multitubular heat exchangers, and packedbed reactors. Chapter 8 starts with isothermal laminar flow in tubular reactors that have negligible molecular diffusion. The complications of significant molecular diffusion, nonisothermal reactions with consequent diffusion of heat, and the effects of temperature and composition on the velocity profile are subsequently introduced. Chapter 9 treats turbulent reactors and packed-bed reactors of both the laminar and turbulent varieties. The result of these two chapters is a comprehensive design methodology that is applicable to many design problems in the traditional chemical industry and which forms a conceptual framework for extension to nontraditional industries. The major limitation of the methodology is its restriction to reactors that have a single mobile phase. Reactors with two or three mobile phases, such as gas–liquid reactors, are considered in Chapter 11, but the treatment is necessarily less comprehensive than for the reactors of Chapters 8 and 9 that have only one mobile phase.

The essence of reactor design is the combination of chemical kinetics with transport phenomena. The chemical kineticist, who can be a chemical engineer but by tradition is a physical chemist, is concerned with the interactions between molecules (and sometimes within molecules) in well-defined systems. By well-defined, we mean that all variables that affect the reaction can be controlled at uniform and measurable values. Chemical kinetic studies are usually conducted in small equipment where mixing and heat transfer are excellent and where the goal of having well-defined variables is realistic. Occasionally, the ideal conditions can be retained upon scaleup. Slow reactions in batch reactors or CSTRs are examples. More likely, scaleup to industrial conditions will involve fast reactions in large equipment where mixing and heat transfer limitations may emerge. Transport equations must be combined with the kinetic equations, and this is the realm of the chemical reaction engineer.

Chapter 8 combined transport with kinetics in the purest and most fundamental way. The flow fields were deterministic, time-invariant, and calculable. The reactor design equations were applied to simple geometries, such as circular tubes, and were based on intrinsic properties of the fluid, such as molecular diffusivity and viscosity. Such reactors do exist, particularly in polymerizations as discussed in Chapter 13, but they are less typical of industrial practice than the more complex reactors considered in this chapter.

The models of Chapter 9 contain at least one empirical parameter. This parameter is used to account for complex flow fields that are not deterministic, time-invariant, and calculable. We are specifically concerned with packed-bed reactors, turbulent-flow reactors, and static mixers (also known as motionless mixers). We begin with packed-bed reactors because they are ubiquitous within the petrochemical industry and because their mathematical treatment closely parallels that of the laminar flow reactors in Chapter 8.

The first eight chapters of this book treat homogeneous reactions. Chapter 9 provides models for packed-bed reactors, but the reaction kinetics are pseudohomogeneous so that the rate expressions are based on fluid-phase concentrations. There is a good reason for this. Fluid-phase concentrations are what can be measured. The fluid-phase concentrations at the outlet are what can be sold.

Chapter 10 begins a more detailed treatment of heterogeneous reactors. This chapter continues the use of pseudohomogeneous models for steady-state, packed-bed reactors, but derives expressions for the reaction rate that reflect the underlying kinetics of surface-catalyzed reactions. The kinetic models are site-competition models that apply to a variety of catalytic systems, including the enzymatic reactions treated in Chapter 12. Here in Chapter 10, the example system is a solid-catalyzed gas reaction that is typical of the traditional chemical industry.

The packed-bed reactors discussed in Chapters 9 and 10 are multiphase reactors, but the solid phase is stationary, and convective flow occurs only through the fluid phase. The reaction kinetics are pseudohomogeneous, and components balances are written only for the fluid phase.

Chapter 11 treats reactors where mass and component balances are needed for at least two phases and where there is interphase mass transfer. Most examples have two fluid phases, typically gas–liquid. Reaction is usually confined to one phase, although the general formulation allows reaction in any phase. A third phase, when present, is usually solid and usually catalytic. The solid phase may be either mobile or stationary. Some example systems are shown in Table 11.1.

When two or more phases are present, it is rarely possible to design a reactor on a strictly first-principles basis. Rather than starting with the mass, energy, and momentum transport equations, as was done for the laminar flow systems in Chapter 8, we tend to use simplified flow models with empirical correlations for mass transfer coefficients and interfacial areas. The approach is conceptually similar to that used for friction factors and heat transfer coefficients in turbulent flow systems. It usually provides an adequate basis for design and scaleup, although extra care must be taken that the correlations are appropriate. Multiphase reactors can be batch, fed-batch, or continuous. Most of the design equations derived in this chapter are general and apply to any of the operating modes. Unsteady operation of nominally continuous processes is treated in Chapter 14.

Biochemical engineering is a vibrant branch of chemical engineering with a significant current presence and even greater promise for the future. In terms of development, it can be compared with the petrochemical industry in the 1920 s. Despite its major potential, biochemical engineering has not yet been integrated into the standard undergraduate curriculum for chemical engineers. This means that most graduates lack an adequate background in biochemistry and molecular biology. This brief chapter will not remedy the deficiency. Instead, it introduces those aspects of biochemical reactor design that can be understood without detailed knowledge of the underlying science. A chemical engineer can make contributions to the field without becoming a biochemist or molecular biologist, just as chemical engineers with sometimes only rudimentary knowledge of organic chemistry made contributions to the petrochemical industry.

Polymer reaction engineering is a specialized but important branch of chemical reaction engineering. The odds strongly favor the involvement of chemical engineers with polymers at some point in their career. The kinetics of polymerization reactions can be treated using the basic concepts of Chapters 1–5, but the chemistry and mathematics are more complicated than in the examples given there. The number of chemical species participating in a polymerization is potentially infinite, and the mathematical description of a batch polymerization requires an infinite set of differential equations. Analytical and numerical solutions are more difficult than for the small sets of equations dealt with thus far. Polymerizations also present some interesting mechanical problems in reactor design.

The general material balance of Section 1.1 contains an accumulation term that enables its use for unsteady-state reactors. This term is used to solve steady-state design problems by the method of false transients. We turn now to solving real transients. The great majority of chemical reactors are designed for steady-state operation. However, even steady-state reactors must occasionally start up and shut down. Also, an understanding of process dynamics is necessary to design the control systems needed to handle upsets and to enable operation at steady states that would otherwise be unstable.

Reactor design usually begins in the laboratory with a kinetic study. Data are taken in small-scale, specially designed equipment that hopefully (but not inevitably) approximates an ideal, isothermal reactor: batch, perfectly mixed stirred tank, or piston flow. The laboratory data are fit to a kinetic model using the methods of Chapter 7. The kinetic model is then combined with a transport model to give the overall design.

Suppose now that a pilot-plant or full-scale reactor has been built and operated. How can its performance be used to confirm the kinetic and transport models and to improve future designs? Reactor analysis begins with an operating reactor and seeks to understand several interrelated aspects of actual performance: kinetics, flow patterns, mixing, mass transfer, and heat transfer. This chapter is concerned with the analysis of flow and mixing processes and their interactions with kinetics. It uses residence time theory as the major tool for the analysis.

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Chemical Reactor Design, Optimization, and Scaleup by E. Bruce Nauman pdf

Book Details:
Author: E. Bruce Nauman
⏩Language: English
⏩Pages: 581
⏩Size: 5.61 MB
⏩Format: PDF

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