Chemical Equations and Reactions
The evolution of energy as light and heat is an indication
that a chemical reaction is taking place.
SECTION 1: Describing Chemical Reactions.
⏩List three observations that suggest that a chemical reaction has taken place.
⏩List three requirements for a correctly written chemical equation.
⏩Write a word equation and a formula equation for a given chemical reaction.
⏩Balance a formula equation by inspection.
SECTION 2: Types of Chemical Reactions.
⏩Define and give general equations for synthesis, decomposition, single-displacement, and double-displacement reactions.
⏩Classify a reaction as a synthesis, decomposition, single-displacement, doubledisplacement, or combustion reaction.
⏩List three kinds of synthesis reactions and six kinds of decomposition reactions.
*List four kinds of singledisplacement reactions and three kinds of doubledisplacement reactions.
*Predict the products of simple reactions given the reactants.
SECTION 3: Activity Series of the Elements.
⏩Explain the significance of an activity series.
⏩Use an activity series to predict whether a given reaction will occur and what the products will be.
Stoichiometry comes from the Greek words stoicheion,
meaning “element,” and metron, meaning “measure.”
SECTION 1: Introduction toStoichiometry.
⏩Describe the importance of the mole ratio in stoichiometric calculations.
⏩Write a mole ratio relating two substances in a chemical equation.
SECTION 2: Ideal Stoichiometric Calculations.
⏩Calculate the amount in moles of a reactant or product from the amount in moles of a different reactant or product.
⏩Calculate the mass of a reactant or product from the amount in moles of a different reactant or product.
⏩Calculate the amount in moles of a reactant or product from the mass of a different reactant or product.
⏩Calculate the mass of a reactant or product from the mass of a different reactant or product.
SECTION3 : Limiting Reactants and Percentage Yield.
⏩Describe a method for determining which of two reactants is a limiting reactant.
⏩Calculate the amount in moles or mass in grams of a product, given the amounts in moles or masses in grams of two reactants, one of which is in excess.
⏩Distinguish between theoretical yield, actual yield, and percentage yield.
⏩Calculate percentage yield, given the actual yield and quantity of a reactant.
States of Matter
The total three-dimensional arrangement
of particles of a crystal is its crystal structure.
SECTION 1: The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Matter
⏩State the kinetic-molecular theory of matter, and describe how it explains certain properties of matter.
⏩List the five assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory of gases. Define the terms ideal gas and real gas.
⏩Describe each of the following characteristic properties of gases: expansion, density, fluidity, compressibility, diffusion, and effusion.
⏩Describe the conditions under which a real gas deviates from “ideal” behavior.
SECTION 2: Liquids.
⏩Describe the motion of particles in liquids and the properties of liquids according to the kinetic-molecular theory.
⏩Discuss the process by which liquids can change into a gas.
⏩Discuss the process by which liquids can change into a solid. Define freezing.
SECTION 3: Solids.
⏩Describe the motion of particles in solids and the properties of solids according to the kinetic-molecular theory.
⏩Distinguish between the two types of solids.
⏩Describe the different types of crystal symmetry. Define crystal structure and unit cell.
SECTION 4: Changes of State.
⏩Explain the relationship between equilibrium and changes of state.
⏩Interpret phase diagrams.
⏩Explain what is meant by equilibrium vapor pressure.
⏩Describe the processes of boiling, freezing, melting, and sublimation.
SECTION 5: Water.
⏩Describe the structure of a water molecule.
⏩Discuss the physical properties of water. Explain how they are determined by the structure of water.
⏩Calculate the amount of energy absorbed or released when a quantity of water changes state.
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