Automotive Embedded Systems Handbook 1st Edition by Nicolas Navet, Francoise Simonot-Lion.
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Part I Automotive Architectures
Part II Embedded Communications
Part III Embedded Software and Development Processes
Part IV Verification, Testing, and Timing
Preface: The objective of the Automotive Embedded Systems Handbook is to provide a comprehensive overview about existing and future automotive electronic systems. The distinctive features of the automotive world in terms of requirements, technologies, and business models are highlighted and state-of-the-art methodological and technical solutions are presented in the following areas:
• In-vehicle architectures
• Multipartner development processes (subsystem integration, product line management, etc.)
• Software engineering methods
• Embedded communications
• Safety and dependability assessment: validation, verification, and testing
The book is aimed primarily at automotive engineering professionals, as it can serve as a reference for technical matters outside their field of expertise and at practicing or studying engineers, in general. On the other hand, it also targets research scientists, PhD students, and MSc students from the academia as it provides them with a comprehensive introduction to the field and to the main scientific challenges in this domain.
Over the last 10 years, there has been an exponential increase in the number of computer-based functions embedded in vehicles. Development processes, techniques, and tools have changed to accommodate that evolution. A whole range of electronic functions, such as navigation, adaptive control, traffic information, traction control, stabilization control, and active safety systems, are implemented in today’s vehicles. Many of these new functions are not stand-alone in the sense that they need to exchange information—and sometimes with stringent time constraints—with other functions. For example, the vehicle speed estimated by the engine controller or by wheel rotation sensors needs to be known in order to adapt the steering effort, to control the suspension, or simply to choose the right wiper speed. The complexity of the embedded architecture is continually increasing. Today, up to 2500 signals (i.e., elementary information such as the speed of the vehicle) are exchanged through up to 70 electronic control units (ECUs) on five different types of networks.
One of the main challenges of the automotive industry is to come up with methods and tools to facilitate the integration of different electronic subsystems coming from various suppliers into the vehicle’s global electronic architecture. In the last 10 years, several industry-wide projects have been undertaken in that direction (AEE∗, EAST, AUTOSAR, OSEK/VDX, etc.) and significant results have already been achieved (e.g., standard components such as operating systems, networks and middleware, “good practices,” etc.). The next step is to build an accepted open software architecture, as well as the associated development processes and tools, which should allow for easily integrating the different functions and ECUs provided by carmakers and third-part suppliers. This is ongoing work in the context of the AUTOSAR project.
As all the functions embedded in cars do not have the same performance or safety needs, different qualities of service are expected from the different subsystems. Typically, an in-car embedded system is divided into several functional domains that correspond to different features and constraints. Two of them are concerned specifically with real-time control and safety in the vehicle’s behavior: the “power train” (i.e., control of engine and transmission) and the “chassis” (i.e., control of suspension, steering, and braking) domains. For these safety-critical domains, the technical solutions must ensure that the system is dependable (i.e., able to deliver a service that can be justifiably trusted) while being cost-effective at the same time.
These technical problems are very challenging, in particular due to the introduction of X-by-wire functions, which replace the mechanical or hydraulic systems, such as braking or steering, with electronic systems. Design paradigms (time-triggered, “safety by construction”), communication networks (FlexRay, TTP/C), and middleware layers (AUTOSAR COM) are currently being actively developed in order to address these needs for dependability.
The principal players in the automotive industry can be divided into:
• Vehicle manufacturers
• Automotive third-part suppliers
• Tool and embedded software suppliers
The relationships between them are very complex. For instance, suppliers providing key technologies are sometimes in a very strong position and may impose their technical approach on carmakers. Since the competition is fierce among carmakers and suppliers, keeping the company’s know-how confidential is crucial. This has strong implications in the technical field. For instance, the validation of the system (i.e., verifying that the system meets its constraints) may have to be carried out with techniques that do not require full knowledge of the design rationales and implementation details.
Shortening the time to market puts on added pressure because carmakers must be able to propose their innovations—that usually rely heavily on electronic systems— within a time frame that allows for these innovations to be really considered as innovative. The players involved strive to reduce the development time while the system’s overall complexity increases, demanding even more time. This explains why, despite the economic competition, they have agreed to work together to define standard components and reference architecture that will help cut overall development time.
This book contains 15 contributions, written by leading experts from industry and academia directly involved in the engineering and research activities treated in this book. Many of the contributions are from industry or industrial research establishments at the forefront of the automotive domain: Siemens (Germany), ETAS (Germany), Volvo (Sweden), Elektrobit (Finland), Carmeq (Germany), The MathWorks Inc. (United States), and Audi (Germany). The contributions from academia and research organizations are presented by renowned institutions such as Technical University of Berlin (Germany), LORIA-Nancy University (France), INRIA (France), IRCCyN Nantes University (France), KTH (Sweden), Mälardalen University (Sweden), Kettering University (United States), University of Aveiro (Portugal), and Ulm University (Germany).
This part provides a broad introduction to automotive embedded systems, their design constraints, and AUTOSAR as the emerging de facto standard. Chapter 1, “Vehicle Functional Domains and Their Requirements,” introduces the main functions embedded in a car and how these functions are divided into functional domains (chassis, power train, body, multimedia, safety, and human–machine interfaces). Some introductory words describe the specificities of the development process as well as the requirements in terms of safety, comfort, performance, and cost that need to be taken into account.
In Chapter 2, “Application of the AUTOSAR Standard,” the authors tackle the problem of the standardization of in-vehicle embedded electronic architectures. They analyze the current status of software in the automotive industry and present the specifications elaborated within the AUTOSAR consortium in terms of standardization. Particular attention has to be paid to AUTOSAR because it is becoming a standard that everyone has to understand and deal with.
Finally, Chapter 3, “Intelligent Vehicle Technologies,” presents the key technologies that have been developed to meet today’s, and tomorrow’s, automotive challenges in terms of safety, better use of energy, and better use of space, especially in cities. These technologies, such as sophisticated sensors (radar, stereo-vision, etc.), wireless networks, or intelligent driving assistance, will facilitate the conception of partially or fully autonomous vehicles that will reshape the transport landscape and commuters’
travel experience in the twenty-first century.
The increasing complexity of electronic architectures embedded in a vehicle, and locality constraints for sensors and actuators, has led the automotive industry to adopt a distributed approach for implementing the set of functions. In this context, networks and protocols are of primary importance. They are the key support for integrating functions, reducing the cost and complexity of wiring, and furnishing a means for fault tolerance. Their impact in terms of performance and dependability is crucial as a large amount of data is made available to the embedded functions through the networks. This part includes three chapters dedicated to networks and protocols.
Chapter 4, “A Review of Embedded Automotive Protocols,” outlines the main protocols used in automotive systems; it presents the features and functioning schemes of CAN, J1850, FlexRay, TTCAN, and the basic concepts of sensor/actuator networks (LIN, TTP/A) and multimedia networks (MOST, IDB1394). The identification of the communication-related services commonly offered by a middleware layer and an overview of the AUTOSAR proposals conclude the chapter.
CAN is at present the network that is the most widely implemented in vehicles. Nevertheless, despite its efficiency and performance, CAN does not possess all the features that are required for safety-critical applications. The purpose of the chapter, “Dependable Automotive CANs,” is to point out CAN’s limitations, which reduce dependability, and to present technical solutions to overcome or minimize these limitations. In particular, the authors describe techniques, protocols, and architectures based on CAN that improve the dependability of the original protocol in some aspects while still maintaining a high level of flexibility, namely (Re)CANcentrate, CANELy, FTT-CAN, and FlexCAN.
With the development of technology, there has been an increasing number of functions with strong needs in terms of data bandwidth. In addition, safety requirements have become more and more stringent. To answer to both of these constraints, in 2000, the automotive industry began to develop a new protocol—FlexRay. Chapter 5 “FlexRay Protocol,” explains the rationale of FlexRay and gives a comprehensive overview of its features and functioning scheme. Finally, an evaluation of the impact of FlexRay on the development process concludes the chapter.
Embedded Software and Development Processes
The design process of an electronic-embedded system relies on a tight cooperation between car manufacturers and suppliers under a specific concurrent engineering approach. Typically, carmakers provide the specification of the subsystems to suppliers, who are then in charge of the design and realization of these subsystems, including the software and hardware components, and possibly the mechanical or hydraulic parts. The results are furnished to the carmakers, who in turn integrate them into the car and test them. Then comes the “calibration” phase, which consists of tuning control and regulation parameters in order to meet the required performances of the controlled systems. Any error detected during the integration phase leads to costly corrections in the specification or design steps. For this reason, in order to improve the effectiveness of the development process, new design methodologies are emerging, in particular, the concept of a virtual platform, which is now gaining acceptance in the area of the electronic automotive systems design.
The virtual platform concept requires modeling techniques that are suited to the design and validation activities at each step of the development process. In this context, model-based development (MBD) has been extensively studied by both car manufacturers and suppliers. How to adapt this approach to the automotive industry is discussed in Chapter 10, “Model-Based Development of Automotive Embedded Systems.” This chapter identifies the benefits of model-based development, explores the state of practice, and looks into the major challenges for the automotive industry. One of the main issues in automotive systems is to reduce the time to market. The reuse of components, or of subsystems, is one way to achieve this objective. In Chapter 8, “Reuse of Software in Automotive Electronics,” the authors give an overview of the challenges faced when reusing software in the automotive industry, the different viewpoints on the reuse issue of manufacturers and suppliers, and the impact of the multipartner development approach.
Sharing the same modeling language between the different parties involved in development is an effective means to ease the cooperative development process. The main purpose of such a language is, on the one hand, to support the description of the system at the different steps of its development (requirement specification, functional specification, design, implementation, tuning, etc.) according to the different points of view and, on the other hand, to ensure a consistency between these different views. Another important aspect is its ability to reflect the structure of the embedded systems as an architecture of components (hardware components, functional components, software components). The ideas and principles brought by architecture description languages (ADLs) are well suited to these objectives. What is an ADL? Why are ADLs needed? What are the main existing ADLs and their associated tools? What are the main ongoing projects in the automotive context? Answers to these questions can be found in Chapter 9 “Automotive Architecture Description Languages.”
The introduction and management of product lines is of primary importance for the automotive industry. These product lines are linked to mechanical system variations, and certain customer-visible variations, offered in a new car. The purpose of Chapter , “Product Lines in Automotive Electronics” is to present the systematic planning and continuous management of variability throughout the development process.This chapter provides some techniques on how to model the variability as well as traceability guidelines for the different phases of development.
Verification, Testing, and Timing Analysis
Some functions in a car are critical from the safety point of view, such as, for example, certain functions in the chassis or the power train domain. Thus, validation and verification are of primary importance.
Testing is probably the most commonly used verification technique in the automotive industry. A general view on testing approaches is given in Chapter 11 “Testing Automotive Control Software.” In particular, this chapter describes current practices and several methods that are involved in the testing activities, such as the classification-tree method, test scenario selection approaches, and black-box/whitebox testing processes. As already mentioned, communication networks and protocols are key factors for the dependability and performance of an embedded system. Hence, certain properties on communication architectures have to be verified. Chapter 12, “Testing and Monitoring of FlexRay-Based Applications,” deals with the application of testing techniques to the FlexRay protocol. The authors review the constraints in the validation step in the development process of automotive applications and explain how fault-injection and monitoring techniques can be used for testing FlexRay.
As CAN is the most popular network embedded in cars, its evaluation has been the subject of a long line of research. Chapter 13, “Timing Analysis of CAN-Based Automotive Communication Systems,” summarizes the main results that have been obtained over the last 15 years in the field of timing analysis on CAN. In particular, it is explained how to calculate bounds on the delays that frames experience before arriving at the receiver end (i.e., the response times of the frames). Accounting for the occurrence of transmission errors, for instance due to electromagnetic interferences, is also covered in this chapter. Due to its medium access control protocol based on the priorities of the frames, CAN possesses good real-time characteristics. However, a shortcoming that becomes increasingly problematic is its limited bandwidth. One solution that is being investigated by car manufacturers is to schedule the messages with offsets, which leads to a desynchronization of the message streams. As shown in Chapter 14, “Scheduling Messages with Offsets on Controller Area Network: A Major Performance Boost,” this “traffic shaping” strategy is very beneficial in terms of worstcase response times. The experimental results suggest that sound offset strategies may extend the life span of CAN further, and may defer the introduction of FlexRay and additional CANs.
Chapter 15 “Formal Methods in the Automotive Domain: The Case of TTA,” describes the formal verification research done in the context of time-triggered architecture (TTA), and more specifically the work that concerns time-triggered protocol (TTP/C), which is the core underlying communication network of the TTA. These formal verification efforts have focused on crucial algorithms in distributed systems: clock synchronization, group membership algorithm, or the startup algorithm, and have led to strong results in terms of dependability guarantees. To the best of our knowledge, TTA is no longer being considered or implemented in cars. Nevertheless, the experience gained over the years with the formal validation of the TTA will certainly prove to be extremely valuable for other automotive communication protocols such as FlexRay, especially in the perspective that certification procedures will be enforced for automotive systems, as they are now for avionic systems.
We would like to express our gratitude to all of the authors for the time and energy they have devoted to presenting their topic. We are also very grateful to Dr. Richard Zurawski, editor of the Industrial Information Technology Series, for his continuous support and encouragements. Finally, we would like to thank CRC Press for having agreed to publish this book and for their assistance during the editorial process.
We hope that you, the readers of this book, will find it an interesting source of inspiration for your own research or applications, and that it will serve as a reliable, complete, and well-documented source of information for automotive-embedded systems.
From Back Cover:
Highlighting requirements, technologies, and business models, the Automotive Embedded Systems Handbook provides a comprehensive overview of existing and future automotive electronic systems. It presents state-of-the-art methodological and technical solutions in the areas of in-vehicle architectures, multipartner opment processes, software engineering methods, embedded communications, and safety and dependability assessment.
Divided into four parts, the book begins with an introduction to the design constraints of automotive-embedded systems. It also examines AUTOSAR as the emerging de facto standard and looks at how key technologies, such as sensors and wireless networks, will facilitate the conception of partially and fully autonomous vehicles. The next section focuses on networks and protocols, including CAN, LIN, FlexRay, and TTCAN. The third part explores the design processes of electronic embedded systems, along with new design methodologies, such as the virtual platform. The final section presents validation and verification techniques relating to safety issues.
Providing domain-specific solutions to various technical challenges, this handbook serves as a reliable, complete, and well-documented source of information on automotive embedded systems.
• Presents a state-of-the-art account of the development processes, techniques, and tools of computer-based functions embedded in vehicles
• Offers balanced viewpoints from industry and academic experts, car manufacturers, and suppliers
• Outlines the features and functioning schemes of CAN, LIN, FlexRay, and TTCAN protocols
• Addresses the main problems in the design of automotive embedded systems, including time-to-market, variability, and response times
• Explains the classification-tree method, test scenario selection approaches, black-box/white-box testing processes, and fault-injection and monitoring techniques
Automotive Embedded Systems Handbook 1st Edition by Nicolas Navet, Francoise Simonot-Lion pdf.
⏩Editors: Nicolas Navet, Francoise Simonot-Lion
⏩Publisher: CRC Press; 1 edition (December 20, 2008)
⏩Puplication Date: December 20, 2008
⏩Size: 7.88 MB
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