Real-time Communication Protocols for Multi-hop Ad-hoc Networks: Wireless Networking in Production and Control Systems by Reinhard Gotzhein pdf.
Real-time Communication Protocols for Multi-hop Ad-hoc Networks: Wireless Networking in Production and Control Systems by Reinhard Gotzhein.
The use of wireless real-time communication technologies for the flexible networking of sensors, actuators, and controllers is a crucial building block for future production and control systems. With WirelessHART and ISA 100.11a, two technologies that have been conceived for industrial use are currently available. Nevertheless, our research on wireless real-time communication systems has shown further potential, resulting in more flexible, versatile, and robust solutions that can be implemented on today’s low-cost and resource-constrained hardware platforms. This monograph presents fundamentals, results, and trends of communication protocol research that enable flexible real-time multi-hop networking in production and control systems, using wireless communication technologies. Core functionalities such as time synchronization, global medium slotting, automatic topology detection, medium access schemes, deterministic arbitration, duty cycling, dynamic quality of service multicast routing with mobility support, network clustering, and application-specific middleware are identified and described, and suitable protocols are presented. For real-time support, deterministic protocols, i.e., protocols with predictable behavior, are required; this concerns, e.g., precise bounds for synchronization accuracy and transfer delays, exclusiveness of medium access, uniqueness of the winner of network-wide arbitration, and timely and reliable delivery of packets.
While state-of-the-art and state-of-the-practice in the area are surveyed and assessed, the focus of this monograph is on protocols that have been developed at the Chair for Networked Systems of the University of Kaiserslautern. Each protocol is presented in detail, and it is shown how these protocols are integrated into the wireless real-time multi-hop communication system ProNet (Production Network) 4.0. Due to its extensive functionality, its real-time support, its application-specific middleware, and its high degree of flexibility, ProNet 4.0 is particularly suitable for use in future networked production and control systems. ProNet 4.0 has been prototypically implemented on the Imote2 hardware platform equipped with the Chipcon CC2420 radio transceiver and has been installed and operated in the SmartFactoryKL at the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI) in Kaiserslautern.
The book focuses on core functionalities for wireless real-time multi-hop networking with time-division multiple access (TDMA) and their integration into a flexible, versatile, fully operational, and self-contained communication system. The protocols presented in the book are located on medium access control (MAC) layer and above and build on the PHYsical (PHY) layer of standard wireless communication technologies. This is different from existing books on wireless communication, which mainly treat functionalities located on PHY and MAC layer, and which do not focus on real-time multi-hop networks and self-contained real-time protocol stacks.
The book is directed toward graduate students, Ph.D. students, researchers, and technical professionals in the disciplines of computer science, control engineering, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, and production engineering. The chapters of the book are largely self-contained and can be studied in any order. However, it is recommended to read the introductory Chap. 1 first, followed by other chapters of particular interest, preferably in the order of the book. Chapters 2–10 present results that are put into a larger context. They all start with a subchapter on foundations, followed by subchapters on results of the author and his research group, related work, and conclusions. Chapter 11 is on implementation aspects, Chap. 12 presents case studies, and Chap. 13 summarizes results and gives an outlook.
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