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Fluid Power Dynamics by R. Keith Mobley.
Part I Hydraulics
Chapter 1 Basic Hydraulics
Chapter 2 Forces in Liquids
Chapter 3 Hydraulic Pumps
Chapter 4 Hydraulic Fluids
Chapter 5 Reservoirs, Strainers, Filters, and Accumulators
Chapter 6 Actuators
Chapter 7 Control Valves
Chapter 8 Lines, Fittings, and Seals
Chapter 9 Basic Diagrams and Systems
Chapter 10 Troubleshooting Hydraulic Systems
Chapter 11 Maintenance of Hydraulic Systems
Part II Pneumatics
Chapter 12 Pneumatic Basics
Chapter 13 Characteristics of Compressed Air
Chapter 14 Compressors
Chapter 15 Air Dryers
Fluid Power Dynamics
Chapter 16 Air Reservoir (Receiver)
Chapter 17 Safety Valves
Chapter 18 Coolers
Chapter 19 Valves
Chapter 20 Actuators
Chapter 21 Troubleshooting Pneumatic Circuits
Standard Graphical Symbols
INTRODUCTION: The study of hydraulics deals with the use and characteristics of liquids and gases. Since the beginning of time, humans have used fluids to ease their burdens. Earliest recorded history shows that devices such as pumps and waterwheels were used to generate useable mechanical power.
Fluid power encompasses most applications that use liquids or gases to transmit power in the form of mechanical work, pressure, and/or volume in a system. This definition includes all systems that rely on pumps or compressors to transmit specific volumes and pressures of liquids or gases within a closed system. The complexity of these systems ranges from a simple centrifugal pump used to remove casual water from a basement to complex airplane control systems that rely on high-pressure hydraulic systems.
Fluid power systems have been developing rapidly over the past 35 years. Fluid power filled a need during World War II for an energy transmission system with muscle, which could easily be adapted to automated machinery. Today, fluid power technology is seen in every phase of human activity. Fluid power is found in areas of manufacturing such as metal forming, plastics, basic metals, and material handling. Fluid power is evident in transportation as power and control systems of ships, airplanes, and automobiles. The environment is another place fluid power is hard at work compacting waste materials and controlling floodgates of hydroelectric dams. Food processing, construction equipment, and medical technology are a few more areas of fluid power involvement. Fluid power applications are only limited by imagination.
There are alternatives to fluid power systems. Each system, regardless of the type, has its own advantages and disadvantages. Each has applications where it is best suited to do the job. This is probably the reason you won’t find a fluid power wristwatch, or hoses carrying fluid power replacing electrical power lines.
ADVANTAGES OF FLUID POWER:
If a fluid power system is properly designed and used, it will provide smooth, flexible, uniform action without vibration and is unaffected by variation of load. In case of an overload, an automatic release of pressure can be guaranteed, so that the system is protected against breakdown or excessive strain. Fluid power systems can provide widely variable motions in both rotary and line, ar transmission of power, and the need for manual control can be minimized. In addition, fluid power systems are economical to operate.
Fluid power includes hydraulic, hydro-pneumatic, and pneumatic systems. Why are hydraulics used in some applications, pneumatics in others, or combination systems in still others? Both the user and the manufacturer must consider many factors when determining which type of system should be used in a specific application. In general, pneumatic systems are less expensive to manufacture and operate, but there are factors that prohibit their universal application.
The compressibility of air, like that of any gas, limits the operation of pneumatic systems. For example, a pneumatic cylinder cannot maintain the position of a suspended load without a constant supply of air pressure. The load will force the air trapped within the cylinder to compress and allow the suspended load to creep,. This compressibility also limits the motion of pneumatic actuators when under load.
Pneumatic systems can be used for applications that require low to medium pressure and only fairly accurate control. Applications that require medium pressure, more accurate force transmission, and moderate motion control can use a combination of hydraulics and pneumatics, or hydro-pneumatics. Hydraulics systems must be used for applications that require high pressure and/or extremely accurate force and motion control. The flexibility of fluid power, both hydraulic and pneumatic, elements presents a number of problems. Since fluids and gases have no shape of their own, they must be positively confined throughout the entire system. This is especially true in hydraulics, where leakage of hydraulic oil can result in safety or environmental concerns. Special consideration must be given to the structural integrity of the parts of a hydraulic system. Strong pipes, tubing, and hoses, as well as strong containers, must be provided. Leaks must be prevented. This is a serious problem with the high pressure obtained in many hydraulic system applications.
Fluid Power Systems vs Mechanical Systems:
Fluid power systems have some desirable characteristics when compared with mechanical systems”
A fluid power system is often a simpler means of transmitting energy. There are fewer mechanical parts in an ordinary industrial system. Since there are fewer mechanical parts, a fluid power system is more efficient and more dependable. In the common industrial system, there is no need to worry about hundreds of moving parts failing, with fluid or gas as the transmission medium.
With fluid or gas as the transmission medium, various components of a system can be located at convenient places on the machine. Fluid power can be transmitted and controlled quickly and efficiently up, down, and around comers with few controlling elements. Since fluid power is efficiently transmitted and controlled, it gives freedom in designing a machine. The need for gear, cam, and lever systems is eliminated. Fluid power systems can provide infinitely variable speed, force and direction control with simple, reliable elements.
Fluid Power vs Electrical Systems:
Mechanical force and motion controlled can be more easily controlled using fluid power. The simple use of valves and rotary or linear actuators controls speed, direction, and force. The simplicity of hydraulic and pneumatic components greatly increases their reliability. In addition, smaller components and overall system size are typically much smaller than comparable electrical transmission devices.
The operation of the system involves constant movement of the hydraulic fluid within its lines and components. This movement causes friction within the fluid itself and against the containing surfaces. Excessive friction can lead to serious losses in efficiency or damage to system components. Foreign matter must not be allowed to accumulate in the system, where it will clog small passages or score closely fitted parts.
Chemical action may cause corrosion. Anyone working with hydraulic systems must know how a fluid power system and its components operate, both in terms of the general principles common to all physical mechanisms and in terms of the peculiarities of the specific arrangement at hand.
The word hydraulics is based on the Greek word for water, the first-used form of hydraulic power transmission. Initially, hydraulics covered the study of the physical behavior of water at rest and in motion. It has been expanded to include the behavior of all liquids, although it is primarily limited to the motion or kinetics of liquids.
Any use of a pressurized medium, such as hydraulic fluid, can be dangerous. Hydraulic systems carry all the hazards of pressurized systems and special hazards related directly to the composition of the fluid used.
When oil is used as a fluid in a high-pressure hydraulic system, the possibility of fire or an explosion exists. A severe fire hazard is generated when a break in the high-pressure piping occurs and the oil is vaporized into the atmosphere. Extra precautions against fire should be practiced in these areas.
If oil is pressurized by compressed air, an explosive hazard exists. If high-pressure air comes into contact with the oil, it may create a diesel effect, which may result in an explosion. A carefully followed preventive maintenance plan is the best precaution against explosions.
Fluid Power Dynamics by R. Keith Mobley pdf.
⏩Author: R. Keith Mobley
⏩Copyright: 2000 by Butterworth-Heinemann ~ A member of the Reed Elsevier group
⏩Size: 14.7 MB
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