Welding Symbols on Drawings 1st edition by E. N. Gregory and A. A. Armstrong.
1 The need to specify welds
2 The advantages of symbols
3 Welding symbols
4 Welding symbols
5 Welding symbols
6 Location of symbols
7 Location of symbols
8 Supplementary symbols
12 Spot and seam welds
13 Stud welds
15 Process identification
16 Non-destructive testing symbols – AWS
Preface: Symbols for indicating welded joints on engineering drawings were originally devised by individual drawing offices to provide more useful information than a simple arrow with the instruction ‘weld here’. This practice was obviously unsatisfactory, especially when drawings were passed from one company to another and, to solve this problem, the numerous symbols in existence were rationalised to some extent by countries compiling their own standard specifications for welding symbols. The American system of symbolisation is the AWS system, formulated by the American Welding Society (AWS). All AWS standards comply with the requirements of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and are designated ANSI/AWS. This system became widely used throughout the world, mainly because of the oil industry, and today is used by approximately half the world’s welding industry. The rest of the world uses the ISO system, designed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). However, a number of countries, particularly those with wide trading links, may use one system in their own country but need to use the other to satisfy the requirements of an overseas customer. Hence the need for a comparison of the two systems.
The British system was standardised in 1933 and the latest of five revisions, published in 1995 as BS EN 22553, is identical to ISO 2553.
For some years an ISO committee has been working on combining the ISO and AWS standards on welding symbols. It is expected that a combined standard will be published in the future which will standardise symbols on a worldwide basis.
It is important to appreciate the purpose of welding symbols, which is mainly to transmit information from the designer to one or more persons along the quality system network. This includes the welding engineer, welding supervisors, welders, inspection personnel and inspectors. In many cases it would be unfair to expect the designer to provide all the information possible from welding symbols without the help of a welding engineer and possibly from other welding and inspection personnel.
The minimum information provided by the designer should consist of the location and types of welds and the sizes and lengths of the fillet welds. The latter will require knowledge of the mechanical properties of the parent metal and the available filler metals. This will be simple for mild steel but more complex for low alloy steels, stainless steels and non-ferrous alloys. A lot of supplementary information can be added to a welding symbol but it may be more convenient and, indeed, useful to include this in a written Welding Procedure Specification (WPS). This procedure is recommended in the ANSI/AWS standard.
It is permissible, therefore, to use a standard on welding symbols for guidance, provided that the drawing indicates at least the locations and sizes of welds, any additional information being provided on a WPS or by detailed notes and drawings.
” by E. N. Gregory and A. A. Armstrong”.
This book is an updated version of Weld symbols on drawings published in 1982. It describes the application of weld symbols in British/European Standard BS EN 22553, International Standard ISO 2553 and American Standard ANSI/AWS A2.4-98. For full, authoritative details the standards themselves should be consulted.
References to ISO 2553: 1993 and ANSI/AWS A2.4-98 have been shortened, for convenience, to ISO and AWS where the full reference is not of primary concern and the context makes the abbreviated reference clear. The BS EN 22553 Standard is identical to ISO 2553 so any reference to the ISO standard applies equally to the British standard.
Only the representation of a given weld on a drawing is covered in this book. This does not include the design of the welded joint. The drawings are not necessarily to scale and the weld shapes shown are for the purpose of illustration only and do not represent recommended practice.
Four exercises in the use of welding symbols are included. These will be of particular use to students studying welding technology. Many thousands of engineering drawings are currently in use which have symbols and methods of representation from superseded standards, e.g. BS 499: Part 2: 1980 or ANSI/AWS 2.4-79. The current European, ISO and American standards are substantially similar but the ANSI/AWS A2.4-98 Standard includes some additional welding symbols and symbols for non-destructive testing. This book includes material to cover the application of these additional symbols. Although symbols in the different standards are similar, the arrows showing locations of welds are different, and these important differences are explained.
ISO 2553 contains very limited information on the representation of brazed or soldered joints. These joints are covered in ANSI/AWS A2.4-98, which contains comprehensive information on this topic
” by E. N. Gregory and A. A. Armstrong “.
⏩Edition: 1st Edition
⏩Authors: E. N. Gregory and A. A. Armstrong
⏩Puplisher: Woodhead Publishing
⏩Puplication Date: March 14, 2005
⏩Size: 852 MB
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