Thyristor-Based FACTS Controllers for Electrical Transmission Systems 1st Edition by R. Mohan Mathur, Rajiv K. Varma pdf.
2. Reactive-Power Control in Electrical Power Transmission Systems
3. Principles of Conventional Reactive-Power Compensators
4. SVC Control Components and Models
5. Concepts of SVC Voltage Control
6. SVC Applications
7. The Thyristor-Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC)
8. TCSC Applications
9. Coordination of FACTS Controllers
10. Emerging FACTS Controllers
Appendix A. Design of an SVC Voltage Regulator
Appendix B. Transient-Stability Enhancement in a Midpoint SVC-Compensated SMIB System
Appendix C. Approximate Multimodal Decomposition Method for the Design of FACTS Controllers
Appendix D. FACTS Terms and Definitions
Description of each chapter:
CHAPTER 1: Introduction
This chapter briefly discusses the growth of complex electrical power networks. It introduces the lack of controllability of the active- and reactive-power flows in energized networks. (These flows tend to diffuse in the network, depending primarily on the impedance of power lines.) This chapter also describes the conventional controlled systems, such as automatic governor control and excitation control employed at generating stations. Transformer tap-changer control is another control feature generally available in transmission networks. Arising from the transformer combinations and the use of on-load tap changers, phase-shifting transformers are realized, which are primarily used to mitigate circulating power on network tie-lines.
This introduction and the recognition of limited controllability provide the basis for introducing the concept of the flexible ac transmission system (FACTS). Since newly developed FACTS devices rely on the advances made in semiconductor components and the resulting power-electronic devices, these, too, are introduced.
This chapter also introduces the basic operating principles of new FACTS devices. (These principles are fully discussed in later chapters of this book.) Finally, the chapter presents a brief commentary on emerging deregulation, competition, and open access in power utilities. In that context, the value of FACTS devices for emerging transmission companies is identified.
CHAPTER 2: Reactive-Power Control in Electrical Power Transmission Systems
In this chapter, an understanding of reactive power associated with powertransmission networks is developed. To make transmission networks operate within desired voltage limits, methods of making up or taking away reactivepower—hereafter called reactive-power control—are discussed. Before proceeding further, however, a thorough understanding of the reactive power in ac systems is necessary.
CHAPTER 3: Principles of Conventional Reactive-Power Compensators
This chapter presents power-circuit topologies, fundamental operating principles, and reactive-power control processes of different shunt-connected reactive-power control devices. For years, these devices have been addressed by different names in the literature—static var generators (SVGs), static var compensators (SVCs), static compensators, and static var systems (SVSs), for example. However, both the CIGRE  and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)  have established the following definitions to ensure consistency.
CHAPTER 4: SVC Control Components and Models
This chapter describes the various components of a general SVC control system, such as a measurement system, a voltage regulator, a gate-pulse generator, a synchronizing system, and supplementary control and protection functions –. The demodulation effect of the measurement system , , , which causes various kinds of control instabilities, is discussed in depth, and different implementations of the voltage regulator  are presented. The genesis of control-system delays is included. The SVC features are described in detail; each SVC is provided with many additional control and protection features to ensure a fast yet secure operation in the wake of severe system disturbances. For the various control-system components, mathematical models are presented that vary in their complexity to accommodate the nature of the study to be performed for an SVC-compensated power system –, –.
CHAPTER 5: Concepts of SVC Voltage Control
Static var compensators (SVCs) are used primarily in power systems for voltage control as either an end in itself or a means of achieving other objectives, such as system stabilization –. This chapter presents a detailed overview of the voltage-control characteristics of SVC and the principles of design of the SVC voltage regulator. The performance of SVC voltage control is critically dependent on several factors, including the influence of network resonances, transformer saturation, geomagnetic effects, and voltage distortion. When SVCs are applied in series-compensated networks, a different kind of resonance between series capacitors and shunt inductors becomes decisive in the selection of control parameters and filters used in measurement circuits. Various considerations affecting the design of the SVC voltage regulator are discussed in this chapter as well.
CHAPTER 6: SVC Applications
Static var compensators (SVCs) constitute a mature technology that is finding widespread usage in modern power systems for load compensation as well as transmission-line applications. In high-power networks, SVCs are used for voltage control and for attaining several other objectives such as damping and stability control. Although the voltage-control issue was discussed extensively in Chapter 5, the concepts of SVC control in such applications as stability enhancement, damping subsynchronous oscillations, and improvement of HVDC link performance are presented in this chapter. The principles of SVC control in such applications are enunciated together with example cases. Basic issues relating to the design of SVC controllers in different applications are explained, and the essentials of design methodologies are presented. Also, factors involved in the determination of SVC ratings are described.
CHAPTER 7: The Thyristor-Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC)
Series capacitors offer certain major advantages over their shunt counterparts. With series capacitors, the reactive power increases as the square of line current, whereas with shunt capacitors, the reactive power is generated proportional to the square of bus voltage. For achieving the same system benefits as those of series capacitors, shunt capacitors that are three to six times more reactivepower–rated than series capacitors need to be employed –. Furthermore, shunt capacitors typically must be connected at the line midpoint, whereas no such requirement exists for series capacitors.
CHAPTER 8: TCSC Applications
Thyristor-controlled series capacitors (TCSCs) can be used for several powersystem performance enhancements, namely, the improvement in system stability, the damping of power oscillations, the alleviation of subsynchronous resonance (SSR), and the prevention of voltage collapse. The effectiveness of TCSC controllers is dependent largely on their proper placement within the carefully selected control signals for achieving different functions. Although TCSCs operate in highly nonlinear power-system environments, linear-control techniques are used extensively for the design of TCSC controllers. In addition to discussing the foregoing TCSC uses, this chapter describes the performance of two recent TCSC installations: one in Sweden, the other in Brazil.
CHAPTER 9: Coordination of FACTS Controllers
Flexible ac transmission system (FACTS) controllers either extend the powertransfer capability of existing transmission corridors or enhance the stability and security margins for given power-transmission limits. Fast controls associated with FACTS controllers do provide these system improvements, but they also can interact adversely with one another. In an interconnected power system, when the controller parameters of a dynamic device are tuned to obtain the best performance, the remaining power system is generally assumed to be passive or represented by slowly varying elements. This assumption is strictly not true; hence the adjusted parameters may not prove optimal when the dynamics of the various other controllers are, in effect, found in real systems . This chapter presents different scenarios when various FACTS controllers interact unfavorably with one another. Linear-control techniques for coordinating the controls of different FACTS controllers are described, and nonlinear-control design methods that can be extended for the same purpose are described as well.
CHAPTER 10: Emerging FACTS Controllers
This chapter presents the operating principles and applications of several highly versatile controllers—the STATCOM, SSSC, and UPFC—without any prejudice to other FACTS controllers. These three FACTS controllers are second-generation types that are based on nonthyristor devices such as gate turn-offs (GTOs) and insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs).
⏩Authors: R. Mohan Mathur, Rajiv K. Varma
⏩Publisher: Wiley-IEEE Press; 1 edition (February 27, 2002)
⏩Puplication Date: February 27, 2002
⏩Size: 5.85 MB
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