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Analog Electronic Circuit Design by Peter D. Hiscocks.
2 Basic DC Circuits
3 Tools for Circuit Analysis: Part 1
4 Tools for Circuit Analysis: Part 2
5 The Laplace Transform
6 The Semiconductor Diode
7 The Zener Diode
8 Active Devices
9 Motors and Generators
10 Negative Feedback
11 Reactance and Bode Plots
12 The Operational Amplifier: Basics
13 The Operational Amplifier: Applications
14 The Schmitt Trigger
15 Power Supplies
16 Precision Rectifiers
17 Active Filters
18 The Zoo: Unusual Circuits
19 Phase Shift Networks
21 The Non-Ideal Operational Amplifier
22 Operational Amplifier Noise
23 Operational Amplifier Frequency Response
25 Digital to Analog Conversion
26 Analog to Digital Conversion
27 Opto-Electronic Devices
29 The Single Stage BJT Amplifier
31 JFET Characteristics and Applications
32 The MOSFET Family
33 CMOS Analog Switch and Applications
35 Beyond the Op-Amp
37 Complete Systems
Electrical technology has two large subject areas: power systems and signals. Power Systems concerns the generation and transmission of electrical energy. Electricity is a convenient way of moving and distributing energy at a central location (the power plant) to the end user, where it powers your lights, refrigerator and computer.
Signals concerns the use of electricity to convey information. For example, the video image of a television display and the sounds of a music player are transmitted and processed in electrical form. The information in the video image and sound track are represented by small-scale voltages and currents1.
This representation of the signal can be analog or digital. In analog form2 the magnitude of some voltage or current represents the original signal. For example, the magnitude of a voltage varies in the same fashion as a sound wave: the voltage is said to be an analog representation of the sound wave. Signals almost always begin in analog format. In many cases, the signal is subsequently converted to digital format, in which the original signal is represented by a stream of numbers. In some cases, it is subsequently reconverted back to analog form. This text is focussed on electronic signals in the analog format.
Why study analog circuit design?
• Signals usually begin in analog form and it is important to understand the various tradeoffs of analog and digital signal representations. A versatile designer will be able to work in both analog and digital domains.
• In some cases, a small analog circuit can replace a larger, more complicated analog-digital design, with consequent savings in parts cost and power consumption.
• Ultimately, all circuitry functions according to analog principles, even if the circuitry is managing a stream of numbers. Issues that are critical to the correct functioning of digital circuits – stray capacitance, termination of transmission lines, supply of power, interference and shielding – are all analog in nature.
• The interface between measuring instrument and circuit is analog in nature. Measurement affects a circuit. It’s important to understand these effects and mitigate them when they are a problem.
• Some circuits – audio power amplifiers and power supply designs – are inherently analog from start to finish. Getting to a Working Design There are various paths to a final design, and the one taken will depend on circumstances. Here are two representative situations:
• We need one functional circuit for a single application. In this case, there is only one instance of the circuit. So, if the circuit works, that’s the end of the matter. Getting there can be accomplished by some calculations on a beer coaster, more-or-less-inspired tinkering at the workbench and some cut and try circuits on a protoboard. If the circuit has to work over a range of conditions (varying temperature, changing line voltage) then it would be a good idea to check circuit operation under those circumstances. Last-minute tweaking of the circuit is fine and will probably be required.
This circumstance often arises in scientific exploration, where one circuit is needed for some measurement. With the results in hand, the circuit is scrap. Furthermore, because there is only one, we can use parts from a junk bin. If it saves time, it’s worthwhile to spend money on components or assemblies. For example, it’s probably best to buy a pre-assembled power supply.
• This is a consumer-grade product that will be built in large quantities. In this case, cost is critical. The cost has two principal components: the parts and the labour to assemble them, and both must be kept under control. Product recalls, warranty repairs and field failures are the stuff of engineering nightmares, so considerable effort must be made to avoid these.
This design must be engineered to meet requirements of cost, function and reliability. Engineering implies planning: careful thought in advance of building. Then, when a prototype is finally constructed, there should be no mysteries and no surprises.
A prototype of working hardware is, to borrow a term from mathematics, a necessary but not sufficient condition. If the prototype works it means that one instance of the circuit design functions correctly. It doesn’t mean that all 10,000 instances will function correctly. That’s the job of the circuit analysis, which took place weeks or months before. On the other hand, if the prototype does not work, then one instance of the circuit has failed and the circuit design is flawed.
The product of engineering work is not the thing itself. The product is the information to build the thing. The circuit concept, detailed drawings, printed circuit board layout, mechanical drawing, bill of material, assembly procedure: those are the product of creative engineering work. Those are the items that must be carefully archived and protected.
In these days of computer tools, there is no excuse for shoddy documentation. There are word processors for manuals, spreadsheets for lists, and drawing programs for schematics. And until someone finds the definitive solution for long-term storage? Keep a paper copy. Just in case.
Simulation and Analysis
In the pursuit of electronic design, we must determine the properties and behaviour of an electrical component or network. We could do this by calculation or by simulation with a computer program. Which is better? For a circuit design where component values are known, the simulation has the advantage – it may be faster to do and it can take into account the imperfections of components like an operational amplifier. However, that is a specific solution and it doesn’t give full insight into the circuit behaviour. You can change the simulation circuit values and determine their effect on the behaviour of the circuit. However, analysis gives a deeper understanding of the circuit operation. For example, an analysis can tell you that a certain cutoff frequency is proportional to the square root of the ratio of two capacitor values. Knowing that, you might be able to select two capacitors that track with temperature and therefore result in a more stable filter design.
On the other hand, some circuits are particularly nasty to analyse. For example, the transformer-driven halfwave power supply with a capacitor filter is often analysed in textbooks as if the transformer has no resistance, that is, the rectifier-filter is driven by a pure voltage source. This is completely unrealistic in practice, but it’s difficult to take source resistance into account. However, using simulation one can play with the values of the components and get a feel for how the circuit functions, so simulation is very useful in that situation. Whether you use analysis or simulation, there is no substitute for understanding the operation of the circuit and doing a sanity check on the results. Run some cases where you know the results and see if the method generates something reasonable. In the preface to , Pease gives 10 examples of simulation failures. As he says, sometimes the simulator gives lies. It’s critical to be able to detect those cases. To summarize, a simulation gives circuit specific results when numeric values are known. Analysis provides generalized results. They both have their uses.
A philosophical note
The reader could be excused for finding a certain amount of magic in the mathematical expositions. For example, in the section on the Laplace Transform, there are a mere dozen or so shown out of the vast number of possible Laplace Transforms3 . That requires a-priori knowledge of what will be useful. We also know that a term like LC or R/L has special significance. That requires experience. Finally, every author has his/her preference for method. What may be clear to the writer is not necessarily clear to the reader. Throughout, I have tried to indicate not only what we do next to progress to the solution, but why we choose to do this and not something else. That said, after doing a few examples, patterns do emerge and hopefully the reader will be able to extrapolate to other circuits
Words of Encouragement
For a hobbyist or engineer, this is a wonderful time to be practising analog circuit design. Analog circuit design is not at the point where one can simply patch together the necessary integrated circuits. Analog circuit design still requires skill and ingenuity. However, analog integrated circuits such as the operational amplifier and voltage regulator have made circuit design much easier.
• Wonderful computer tools are available for design and documentation.
– Symbolic math programs such as Mathematica and Maxima for solving equations,
– Spreadsheets such as Excel and Calc for tolerancing circuits and listing components.
– Circuit simulation programs such as LTSpice and Multisim
– Access to datasheets and applications information via the Web.
– Printed circuit board layout programs that result in reliable circuits that are easy replicate.
– Mechanical design programs to build and check a virtual 3D design.
• Excellent parts are available at modest price. For example, operational amplifiers have evolved from lowfrequency units packaged as expensive modules to gigahertz bandwidth units available for a few cents4
• Small quantities are available for quick delivery and reasonable price from distributors such as Digikey, Mouser and Jameco.
• Small-quantity printed circuit boards are available at reasonable price. Email a description of the board to
the company and receive a printed circuit board later the same week.
• Excellent surplus and new electronic instruments are available at modest cost for measuring and testing circuits5.
It’s still possible and an enjoyable pastime to experiment with electronic circuits. For those who wish to practice professional-level analog circuit design, the components and tools have never been better.
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Analog Electronic Circuit Design by Peter D. Hiscocks pdf.
⏩Author: D. Hiscocks
⏩Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Inc (August 11, 2006)
⏩Puplication Date: August 11, 2006
⏩Size: 17.8 MB
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